Free Essay

Viruses and Antibiotics

In: Science

Submitted By gnarfaxe
Words 318
Pages 2
Assignment 3

Part 1

1. Viruses are both living and non-living as they share characteristics of both. A major non-living characteristic is that viruses do not have cells and cannot reproduce on its own. However, the virus can reproduce if it has a living host, which gives viruses their living characteristics. 2. Viruses cannot be grown agar as bacteria are because they cannot metabolize on their own. They need at least one host cell where it could input its DNA and infect it. After that, both those viruses would commence by infecting other living host cells. 3. Antibiotics work to get rid of the replicating function of bacteria so it cannot spread. However, viruses cannot replicate on their own unless they have living hosts, therefore since the viruses do not replicate, the antibiotics have no use. 4. Viral specificity means that the virus chooses and selects the type of cell, organism to infect and which disease to invoke onto it. 5. a) A-Virus, B-Cell DNA, C-Cell/Cell Membrane, D- Nucleic Acid (DNA or RNA)
b) Bacteriophage Life Cycle
c) I believe it doesn’t matter what they infect, as they are non-living and as long as they find some kind of living host, they’ll inject their nucleic acid to replicate into many more viruses.

6. Antibiotics literally will have no effect and will not cure the patient. All that the patient will gain are the side effects, for example: drowsiness and such. They will not get cured, as their problem is that viruses aren’t alive and antibiotics only deal with live things. Part 2

http://www.storyjumper.com/book/index/10963732/rc21angus

Works Cited

Wikipedia contributors. "Rabies in Animals." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 19 June 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabies_in_animals>.

Wikipedia contributors. "Rabies." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 2 Jul 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabies_in_animals>.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Computer Viruses

...Computer Viruses While technology advances have brought many benefits to society there have also been technological abuses (1). In today’s generation, with the help of the Internet and the rapid growth of the personal computer in the average household, we are able to talk to and share information with people from all sides of the globe (2). Unfortunately this transformation of data has opened the doors for a new era of high tech crime – the computer virus. The Internet is now a complex gateway for transgression and immoral activities where often the perpetrators of the crime are far removed from the scene of the criminal activity and hidden behind a maze of double speak (3). Computer viruses are enigmatic and grab our attention. They move silently from computer to computer under a shroud of secrecy and deceit. If they are not caught in time, these malicious programs can erase all the data off a hard drive, rearrange numbers in a spreadsheet file, or practically anything else a clever programmer can devise. A computer virus is a potentially dangerous computer program designed with the intent of obliterating or corrupting data that it comes into contact with. Computer viruses are mysteriously hidden beneath seemingly innocuous programs, which explains the reason for their effective dissemination across the Internet. These malicious computer programs are designed to replicate themselves or insert copies of themselves into other programs when executed within the infected......

Words: 2468 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Computer Viruses

...Going back to the origin of viruses, it was in 1949 that Mathematician John Von Neumann described self-replicating programs which could resemble computer viruses as they are known today. However, it was not until the 60s that we find the predecessor of current viruses. In that decade, a group of programmers developed a game called Core Wars, which could reproduce every time it was run, and even saturate the memory of other players' computers. The creators of this peculiar game also created the first antivirus, an application named Reeper, which could destroy copies created by Core Wars. However, it was only in 1983 that one of these programmers announced the existence of Core Wars, which was described the following year in a prestigious scientific magazine: this was actually the starting point of what we call computer viruses today. At that time, a still young MS-DOS was starting to become the preeminent operating system worldwide. This was a system with great prospects, but still many deficiencies as well, which arose from software developments and the lack of many hardware elements known today. Even like this, this new operating system became the target of a virus in 1966: Brain, a malicious code created in Pakistan which infected boot sectors of disks so that their contents could not be accessed. That year also saw the birth of the first Trojan: an application called PC-Write. Shortly after, virus writers realized that infecting files could be even more harmful to...

Words: 1088 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria

...Antibiotic resistant bacteria Microbes are all around us, they pretty much fill our whole world. They are in the air we breathe, the food we eat and even in our bodies. There is different types of microbes such as algae, fungi, protozoa, viruses and bacteria, they all have a different functions and structures. But the one microbe that is becoming a threat to us is bacteria because it is becoming antibiotic resistant, which means to us this is going to become a very big problem. Antibiotic resistant bacteria occurs when strains of bacteria in us humans start to become resistant to the antibiotic we take due to improper use or abuse of the drug. Like when you are prescribed a certain antibiotic and you take it for only for a few days instead of going through the whole course, you may have killed some of the bacteria, but some of it still lives. That small amount of bacteria that is partially alive is going to end up becoming resistant to that antibiotic and we don’t want that to happen because then the bacteria can then start multiplying and replacing all the killed bacteria with a new stronger type of bacteria that is going to harder and much more expensive to kill. . Also the antibiotic resistant bacteria is very dangerous because it can spread very quickly between your family members, schools, or co-workers, which will threaten everybody lives. One dangerous antibiotic resistant bacteria that exist today is methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or better known......

Words: 483 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Antibiotics

...Antibiotics have saved numerous lives since the innovation of penicillin antibiotics in 1928 by Alexander Fleming. Although, now there is a increasing anxiety that overuse of antibiotics can direct to avoidable side effects and the expansion of drugs which are mostly opposing bacteria such as MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus).  MRSA has happened to be the most frequent organism responsible for skin, soft tissue and surgical-site infections in the United States and in different parts of the Europe. Different findings had been conducted in a study of the genetic code of MRSA samples; they have added these samples to support to the theory that the introduction of extensive antibiotic use in the 1960s may have generated MRSA disease. Antibiotic word is an originated from Greek for anti, which means against and bios means life. A micro –organism bacteria is a life figure that is moreover good, living in our lower part of the canal near stomach and anus which called intestine, such bacteria’s infecting our bodies and making the world population ill. Antibiotics are a kind of drugs used to treat these infections caused by bacteria. Healthy immune systems can be destroyed by bad bacteria before they can cause disorder in the whole body which causing illness. Human bodies assault the bacteria by transferring white blood cells to the unsafe bacteria separating the good bacteria unaccompanied. Antibiotics are frequently used for higher respiratory infections. But the......

Words: 1136 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Antibiotics

...AAntibiotics Antibiotics are a chemical which work by being either bactericidal where they kill microorganisms; or by being bacteristatic where they inhibit the growth of the microorganisms. Narrow spectrum antibiotics target specific reaction in particular microorganisms; whereas broad spectrum antibiotics will have an effect on more general features so affect a wide range of pathogens. They work by cell wall synthesis: an example of a bactericidal antibiotic is Penicillin, this works by preventing the production of peptidoglycan which is a substance that forms in the cell wall. This means the cell will continue to grow without dividing or developing new cell wall Therefore, the wall gets weaker, and eventually ruptures. Another way antibiotics works is by protein synthesis: an example of a bacteriostatic antibiotic is Tetracycline, it binds to ribosomes in bacteria this means the cell cannot make proteins and therefore inhibits growth. The benefits of using antibiotics is that it helps people with weakened immune systems, it can treat many infections such as strep throat, tonsillitis and sinusitis, it is easy to administer since you can take them orally or via injection, it has few side effects and is cost effective. However issues concerning antibiotics are allergic reactions depending on your drug allergies you may be extremely allergic to some types of antibiotics, such as those containing sulfa. Unfortunately, sulfa is present in many common antibiotics, so it......

Words: 462 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Antibiotic

...ANSWERS Process of Science (13.15) What Are the Patterns of Antibiotic Resistance? Lab Notebook Place an "nr" for "not resistant" and an "r" for "resistant" in the appropriate boxes. | | |Subjects | |Antibiotic |Common Use | | | | |Child |Elderly |Young woman |Physician | | | | |person | | | |Ampicillin |treatment of ear |r |nr |nr |r | | |and throat | | | | | | |infections | | | | | |Cephalosporin |treatment for |nr |r |nr |r | | |people susceptible| | | | | | |to skin infections| | | | | |Ciprofloxacin |treatment of |nr |nr |r |r | | ...

Words: 275 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Overuse of Antibiotics

...The New England Health Institute (NEHI) considers antibiotic overuse a $63 billion issue that desperately needs reform. The solution to the overuse of antibiotics has already been started by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). The CDC implemented an educational program discussing the treatments of viruses and bacterial diseases aimed at patients or the parents of patients as well as health care providers. This program called, Get Smart, Know When Antibiotics Work, discusses the dangers of demanding an antibiotic when the drug will not be effective and outlines options for doctors to discuss with patients (Bend the Curve, 2013). Another part of the reform effort suggests increasing vaccinations to combat antibiotic overuse. By increasing the use of flu shots, the need for antibiotics will diminish. The NEHI favors reform of the guidelines in hospital clinics and other health care settings making it policy to not prescribe antibiotics unless the treatment calls for them, no matter what the patient demands. If all health care professionals respond this way, patients will eventually accept the practice. NEHI considers antibiotic overuse a major player in the health care reform setting including antibiotics given to, or put in the feed, of animals that later become food. Work to decrease antibiotic use in this area impacts human medicine as much as efforts to decrease antibiotics prescribed to humans (Bend the Curve, 2013). Not only are there action that can be taken by......

Words: 506 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Adherence to Antibiotic Therapy

...Adherence to Antibiotic Therapy in Primary Care Grand Canyon University Introduction To Nursing Research Terese Verklan July 6th, 2014   Adherence to Antibiotic Therapy in Primary Care Problem Statement “The term compliance or adherence can be described as the extent or correlation between the patient’s obedience to the therapy and the advice of health providers. Thus, it is related to the patient’s drug-taking attitude. Even when appropriate treatment is prescribed successful results may not always be achieved if patient’s use their medicines improperly” (Göktay, Telefoncu, Kadıoƃlu, Macit, Şencan, & Clark, 2013, p. 113). Many uncomplicated bacterial illnesses react quickly after starting treatment with antibiotics. This can lead to people failing to complete the entire course of treatment and thus recurrence of the illness. In some diseases, it takes a certain length of time of exposure to a specific dose of an antibiotic to kill the bacteria. If the right dose is not taken for the correct length of time, some of the bacteria or viruses may survive, multiply, and cause the infection to recur. “Adherence is an important factor in the achievement of therapeutic outcomes, while patient education is thought to positively affect adherence. The aim of this study is to assess patient adherence to prescribed antibacterial agents impact of patient education on adherence with the therapy” (Göktay, Telefoncu, Kadıoƃlu, Macit, Şencan, & Clark, 2013, p. 113). Purpose......

Words: 866 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Antibiotics Are They Really Magic Bullets?

...TITLE: ANTIBIOTICS : ARE THEY REALLY MAGIC BULLETS? The human body is exposed to substances that have the potential to cause harm on a daily basis. The body protects itself against these substances in several ways. Our natural defences give the body an opportunity to fight off invading microbes that may cause disease. The first line of defence is non-specific and aims to stop microbes from entering the body. The skin and mucous membranes act as a physical barrier preventing penetration by more harmful microbes which could lead to infection (1). The normal body flora on the surfaces of the body, reduce the area available for pathogens to attach to, as well as acting as a competitor for suitable nutrients. The body also produces several antimicrobial substances that kill or break down bacteria. A specific example of a physical barrier is when the blood produces a clot to seal the wound to prevent microbes from entering when the skin has been cut. The second line of defence is also non-specific and involves the process of phagocytosis. A type of white blood cell, called phagocytes, send out pseudopodia to attack the pathogens. Digestive enzymes are then released which break down the harmful microbes (1). Conversely, specific immunity is when resistance is given to a particular foreign agent such as a virus or bacteria, known as antigens. These antigens work to attack the pathogen by causing specific cells to replicate and produce proteins to provide......

Words: 1623 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Antibiotic Resistance

...Antibiotic resistance — what is it and why is it a problem? The development of antibiotics was one of the most important advances of medicine. Many bacterial infections (e.g. tuberculosis and infected wounds) that had previously had no effective treatment and often killed people, became treatable with antibiotics, saving millions of lives. Now, because of the overuse and misuse of antibiotics, bacterial infections that were once easily cured with antibiotics are becoming harder to treat. This is due to antibiotic resistance. The World Health Organization has called this one of the biggest threats to human health today.   What is antibiotic resistance? Antibiotic resistance happens when bacteria change to protect themselves from an antibiotic. They are then no longer sensitive to that antibiotic. When this happens, antibiotics that previously would have killed the bacteria, or stopped them from multiplying, no longer work. What are ‘superbugs’? ‘Superbugs’ are bacteria that are resistant to several different antibiotics. The methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria commonly found in hospitals, and the bacteria that cause tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), are now very hard to treat because of antibiotic resistance. Strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli) — the bacteria that causes many urinary tract infections — have also developed resistance to a number of antibiotics. How does antibiotic resistance affect me? Using antibiotics when you......

Words: 567 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Antibiotics: a Harmful Misued Product

...Antibiotics: A Harmful Misused Product Today, the human race has way too much reliance on antibiotics and products associated with them. Many people are extremely unaware of what can happen if antibiotics are overused or used incorrectly. Nobody allows their body to heal itself. In certain cases antibiotics should be used to help cure one of an infection but not in the ways they are used today. Antibiotics can be found in many household that includes mostly all wipes and sprays. Antibiotics being included in all of these products can do nothing but hurt one in the long run. Placing antibiotics in cleaning appliances can cause all bacteria to become immune and change so that the antibiotic becomes unproductive and the bacterium becomes stronger. Antibiotics are used for anything from cuts to strep throat and pneumonia and have been for a very long time. They are becoming impotent because they are used incorrectly by nearly everyone: doctors, patients, and even people raising animals for meat. The misuse would be prescribing the drugs completely incorrectly. In doing this, superbugs are produced and they are extremely antibiotic resistant and almost impossible to stop. Antibiotics also kill some of the good and helpful bacteria inside of the body which may allow resistant bacteria to fill in. The human body itself has sets up its own defenses with pathogens and other walls that fight and harmful bacteria off without any use of antibiotics. It is very faulty to overuse any......

Words: 1676 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Viruses

...• The only way in which viruses are like organisms is that they are able to multiply. • Although viruses can multiply, they do so differently than organisms. Viruses can multiply only when they are inside a living cell. • The organism that a virus enters and multiplies inside is called a host. • A host is an organism that provides a source of energy for a virus or another organism. • A virus acts like a parasite, an organism that lives on or in a host and causes it harm. • Almost all viruses destroy the cells in which they multiply. Virus Shapes: • Viruses vary widely in shape. • Some viruses are round, while some are rod-shaped. • Other viruses are shaped like bricks, threads, or bullets. • There are even viruses that have complex, robotlike shapes, such as the bacteriophage. • A bacteriophage is a virus that infects bacteria. In fact, its name means “bacteria eater.” Virus Sizes: • Just as viruses vary in shape, they also vary in size. • Viruses are smaller than cells and cannot be seen with the microscopes you use in school. • Viruses are so small that they are measured in units called nanometers (nm), which is one billionth of a meter. (video clip) The Structure of a Virus • All viruses have two basic parts: a protein coat that protects the virus and an inner core made of genetic material. • A virus’s genetic material contains the instructions for making new viruses. • Like keys, a virus’s proteins fit only into certain “locks,” or......

Words: 258 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Viruses

...Classification of viruses Student name Course Institution Instructor Date due Classification of Viruses Most things living things in our world are classified into five different categories. Scientist, biologist and academics do this so they know the exact organism that is being examined and discussed. The five kingdoms of life are identified as: plant, fungi, animal, moneran and fungus. Although, in my research I discovered that some scientist argue that there should be more categories. Plants are many celled organisms and there are about a quarter million plant species. The animal kingdom has about one million species (Campbell, 2003). They are complex organisms with many cells and are divided into vertebrates and invertebrates. Monerans are one-celled organisms and do not have a nucleus. This kingdom is mostly composed of bacteria that are further grouped into bacteria and cyanobacteria. In addition, bacteria are the most common organisms on earth. Protists are mostly single-celled organisms that have a nucleus. They usually live in water. Some protists move around, while others stay in one place. Examples of protists include some algae and amoebas. There are around 38,000 known protist species. They live in water and some move around while others stay in one place. They include algae, paramecium and amoeba. Fungi may also be one-celled or many celled organisms. They include yeast......

Words: 827 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Viruses

...Classification of viruses Student name Course Institution Instructor Date due Classification of Viruses Most things living things in our world are classified into five different categories. Scientist, biologist and academics do this so they know the exact organism that is being examined and discussed. The five kingdoms of life are identified as: plant, fungi, animal, moneran and fungus. Although, in my research I discovered that some scientist argue that there should be more categories. Plants are many celled organisms and there are about a quarter million plant species. The animal kingdom has about one million species (Campbell, 2003). They are complex organisms with many cells and are divided into vertebrates and invertebrates. Monerans are one-celled organisms and do not have a nucleus. This kingdom is mostly composed of bacteria that are further grouped into bacteria and cyanobacteria. In addition, bacteria are the most common organisms on earth. Protists are mostly single-celled organisms that have a nucleus. They usually live in water. Some protists move around, while others stay in one place. Examples of protists include some algae and amoebas. There are around 38,000 known protist species. They live in water and some move around while others stay in one place. They include algae, paramecium and amoeba. Fungi may also be one-celled or many celled organisms. They include yeast......

Words: 827 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Plant Viruses

...Main features of Plant Viruses and the diseases they cause Essay Viruses are small infectious pathogens, which are too small to be seen under a light microscope. However, despite their size they can cause both mild to severe illnesses. Viruses only activate inside a host cell and can affect all life forms including humans, animals, plants, and even microorganisms like bacteria and archaea. Viruses depend on the cellular system of their host for reproduction. Viruses have three main parts, which are nucleic acid, protein coat and lipid membrane. Nucleic acid is the core of a virion, which holds all the genetic information (DNA and RNA) and helps it multiply. The protein coat or capsid protects the virus by covering it and the capsid is covered by a envelope called lipid membrane. Not all viruses have the capsid and the ones that do not have the capsid known as naked viruses. Viruses are responsible for causing many plant diseases, leading to losses in crop yield and quality all around the world. Plant virology began in the 19th century when Dutch microbiologists Martinus Beijerinck and Russian researcher Dmitrii Iwanowski were investigating the cause behind a disease in tobacco (Scholthof 2001). They described an unusual agent, which caused mosaic disease in tobacco (Zaitlin 1998). There was one factor of this agent, which set it apart from other disease-causing microorganisms, and the factor was its size. It had a size smaller than all other microbes. This agent was the......

Words: 1699 - Pages: 7