Free Essay

Tourist Generating Region of Lieper

In: Other Topics

Submitted By altagrace
Words 3860
Pages 16
PhD Scholar S. M. Arsalan SHOEBY
Hamdard University, Pakistan

PhD Scholar Faisal SALEEM
KASBIT, Pakistan

MS Graduate Ambreen RAZZAQ
Institute of Business and Technology – Biztek, Pakistan

Naveed R. KHAN
Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris – UPSI, Malaysia Email: Abstract: The contribution of faculty members in producing scholars and economy building can’t be rule out in any country. The faculty member’s satisfaction, commitment and performance are the points to investigate in higher education sector of Pakistan, especially in private sector universities. This study is conducted in Pakistan to investigate the relationship of satisfaction with commitment and performance, and commitment association with performance. The tools were adopted from the studies of Rice & Schneider (1994) and Smeenk et al. (2008). The top five, private sector universities of Karachi, as per HEC criteria, were taken as target sample to conduct the survey. This research affirmed that satisfaction is positively correlated with commitment and performance, and commitment also correlated with performance of faculty members of private sector universities in Pakistan. Keywords: satisfaction, commitment, performance, faculty members, universities, degree awarding institutions, higher education, private sector.

The growth of higher education is prolific since past decade. Every passing generation is more receptive to education in Pakistan. Thousands of candidates have applied and pass-out from Undergraduate and Postgraduate programs every year. With this growing trend it has been noticed that education sector has also become a desired employment sector, where individuals with high credentials applied by choice. According to Hyder & Reilly (2005) private sector universities and degree awarding institutions are paying handsome remuneration and good career path align with the policies of

Higher Education Commission. Hence, many faculty members are now focusing to pursue this career seriously. Moreover, it has been noticed that HEC remuneration and career policies are clearly defined. Faculty members are willing to develop and update themselves for their career growth. According to Federal Bureau of Statistics (2008) report Karachi city have 77% literacy rate, rank third in Pakistan. Moreover, Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan reported 23 private sector universities/degree awarding institutes chartered by Government of Sindh in Karachi. It generates more than 10,000 academic


Management&Marketing, volume X, issue 2/2012 this study aims to determine the effects of satisfaction on faculty members’ commitment and performance in the private universities of Karachi, Pakistan. Moreover, the study analyzed the commitment sequel on performance of the faculty members. This study goes through the pivotal aspects of the resources of private sector universities of Pakistan and analyzed their impact on sensitive aspects of faculty members’ overall motivation. Hence, consistent with the discussion following research questions have been framed. 1. Does faculty members’ satisfaction effect on their level of performance? 2. Does faculty members’ commitment effect on their level of performance? Significance of the Study This study helps HEC to find the evidences of impact of satisfaction on commitment and performance. This evidence provides that faculty members’ performance shall make effect on university’s reputation and goodwill and student’s performance. This study also provides the future guideline for HEC to increase the level of education in private sector universities. It may give the insight for their HR practices & policies and shall also give a brief answer that why HEC should focus on private sector universities. In perspective of private institutes, this study is also beneficial to make HR policies and procedures for retaining the faculty members who shows their performance and commitment, related to academic and research activities and creates values for them. This study can also give a road map to private sector universities to develop their existing faculty members and encourage them by using pay for performance reward. Conceptualization of Literature and Hypotheses Development The linkage between Satisfaction and Performance

and non-academic employment opportunities. In consistent with the discussion, the growing employment trends in education sector (Hussain, 2005) also promote competition among faculty members to maintain their social and economic status. Most of the faculty members are now pursuing their MS and PhD studies, in Pakistan and abroad, to achieve the highest satisfaction and performance level. Likewise, faculty members are now taking interest in research activities, and hundreds of research publications have been published nationally and internationally every year. The performance of faculty members has been evaluated by his/her research output and teaching abilities (Smeenk et al., 2008). The higher academic performance, in terms of research output and teaching abilities during the year, brings higher monetary and nonmonetary outcome for the faculty members. Alternatively satisfied and high performance lecturers bring educational service quality in higher education institutions (Yusof et al., 2012). In this context, it is assumed that satisfaction with the level of work and environment, and commitment with profession has been directly related with job performance. Moreover, job performance may also vary with the gender, level of experience and qualification (Yussof et al., 2011). This study aims to measure the relationship of satisfaction, commitment and performance. There have been many studies on education in Pakistan however this study is unique in nature. This study will empirically explore the relationship of above mentioned variables in private sector universities and DAI operating in Karachi with especial focus on business and computer science faculty members.

Objectives and Research Questions of the Study
The motivation of the study is the rising demand of this profession. Hence

Management&Marketing, volume X, issue 2/2012 The idea that satisfied employees are more productive held through the 1970s (Christen et al., 2006). The previous studies on job satisfaction and performance showed a strong relationship and have a significant impact on individual and organizational performance (Skibba, 2002). Previous literature evident that seven different models can be used to describe the job satisfaction and job performance relationship, and are considered as unidirectional (Judge et al., 2001). In organizations job satisfaction is now become an influential factor and can play a significant role toward the achievements of organization goals (Alzaidi, 2008). Ostroff (1992) define job satisfaction as a common approach towards a job that is directly connected to the employee desires. Hence employee attitude is reflected in their job performance (Isen and Baron, 1991). Organizations that provide equity in rewards, challenging work and supportive working environment, may satisfied their employees well as compare to others organizations that are not practicing these satisfaction factors (Ostroff, 1992). In this case the relationship between employees’ job satisfaction and job performance is validated as satisfaction is an attitude to doing the job. Fisher et al. (2006) found a causal relationship between job satisfaction and job performance. Hence the relationship between these two is considered as an attitude about their job (Zembylas and Papanastasiou, 2004). It is also found true that employees who are involved in their jobs are good performers as compared to the employees whose attitude towards their job is not good (Rotenberry & Moberg, 2007). Hence it is a clear notion now that better attitude towards job resulted in enhancing the performance of an employee (Ahmad et al., 2010). Similar with other studies Mathis and Jackson (2005) also noticed the impact of job satisfaction on employee performance.


The contention that job satisfaction is related to employee performance has been proved widely (Tella et al., 2007; Pettijohn, et al., 2007). Hence employees those have high job satisfaction level care more about the quality of their work (Long and Swortzel, 2007). Organizations considered that employee with higher levels of job satisfaction have higher levels of performance (Warsi et al., 2009). The rationales behind, why satisfaction will lead to the better performance is that perhaps it lead to good working life and reduce work-related stress (Christen et al., 2006). Warsi et al. (2009) found the positive and significant relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment and job performance conducted on private sector employees of Pakistan. On the basis of the foregoing literature review linking between job satisfaction and job performance, it is hypothesized that: H1: Satisfaction of faculty members with their organization shows higher job performance in private universities of Karachi. The linkage between Commitment and Performance Mowday et al (1979) did the pioneering work in organizational commitment and consider affective commitment as the strong predictor of commitment construct which is based on 15 items. However later work of Allen and Meyer (1990) and Meyer and Allen (1991; 1997) further contributes the normative and continues commitment scales to the organizational commitment literature. Organizational commitment is now become one of the significant measures to examine the performance on work, intention to stay and loyalty of an employee. Hence organizational commitment is considered as the most important construct of employee attachment and performance (Sommer et al., 1996). Organizational commitment measure enable employers


Management&Marketing, volume X, issue 2/2012 progress based upon job performance would let employee more committed than those who do not have career progress. Employees who have stronger commitment to an organization will be stronger guided in actions by organizational values and procedures (Randall, 1987) and have higher performance (Romzek, 1989). It is believed that employee commitment is one of determinant factors for job performance and has become main concern in organizational behavior (Breaux, 2004). Hence, it is hypothesized as follows: H2: Commitment of faculty members with their organization shows higher job performance in private universities of Karachi.

to make decision to persist employees, predict employee involvement, absence, turnover, and had a positive effect on organizational competitive advantage (Mowday, 1998). Organizational commitment is referred to as an attitude that is characterized by three interrelated dimensions which include; acceptance of the organization's values, willingness to exert effort on behalf of the organization and desire to remain an employee of the organization (Yousef, 2000). Studies conducted on the educational institutes found that lecturers who are loyal to the organization demonstrate a strong acceptance of the institution’s values, tasks, and working manner (Park et al., 2005; Suraya and Yunus, 2012). Career

Conceptual schema

Work Satisfaction

Lecturer Performance
Job Commitment
Figure 1. Model depicting the relationship among WS, JC and LP

Research Methodology
The top five private sector universities of Karachi, as ranked by the HEC, were taken as target sample to conduct the survey. The data was collected from the faculty members of two disciplines of the universities i.e. management sciences and computer sciences, the reason is that these disciplines are very progressive and developed. The data collection was done through email survey, permanent and visiting faculty members were contacted to get the responses. Through several email reminders and contact attempts, via peers, researchers were successfully collected 82 filled

survey questionnaires out of 139, with the response rate of 59%. To measure the variables tool was adapted from two studies. Job satisfaction items adopted from the study of Rice & Schneider (1994). And commitment and job performance items were adapted from Smeenk et al. (2008). Furthermore lecturer satisfaction has nine items, lecturer commitment has 18 items and the job performance construct include four items to measure the variable. Job satisfaction items rated on five point Likert scale, 1= strongly dissatisfying to 5=strongly satisfying, and organizational commitment and job performance items judge on five point Likert scale, 1=

Management&Marketing, volume X, issue 2/2012 never to 5= always, and 1= very poor to 5= very good respectively. The Pearson’s correlation was employed to test the hypotheses. SPSS 17 was used to compute the statistical results. Findings of the Study Measures of Reliability


To examine the reliability of the items Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient was employed. The alpha scores, presented in the table below, indicating that the instrument is reliable, hence open for the further analysis.

Construct Lecturer Satisfaction Lecturer Commitment Lecturer Performance Demographic Results The demographic analysis showed that 65 (79%) respondents were male and 17 (21%) respondents were female. The 51 (62%) faculty members are working as permanent faculty members in the universities however, 31 (37%) were visiting faculty members. The analysis found that majority of faculty members (65; 79%) hold the Master’s

No of items 9 18 4

Table 1 Alpha Score 0.898 0.885 0.874

degree in their respective discipline and only 17 (21%) had the PhD degree. Research participants mainly came from two backgrounds of knowledge. About 43 (52%) respondents were from the business management discipline and 39 (48%) were from computer science discipline. The graphical representation is given in figure 2:

Figure 2. Demographic results


Management&Marketing, volume X, issue 2/2012

The table 2 summarized the respondent’s information. Table 2 Demographic Analysis Description Items F Gender Job Status Education Male Female Permanent Faculty Visiting Faculty Master Degree PhD Business Management Computer Sciences 65 17 51 31 65 17 43 39


Descriptive Results Faculty members’ satisfaction construct has the mean score of 3.26, faculty members’ commitment construct has the mean score of 3.59, and faculty members’ performance has the mean score of 3.58. The descriptive results showed the moderate level of satisfaction, commitment and

performance among lecturers. The moderate level indicates that universities have taken initiatives to improve the satisfaction, commitment and performance of lecturers. However substantial improvements have to be taken to improve the level. A comparison of the mean scores of the variable is presented in the figure 3.

Figure 3. Descriptive results

Table 3 summarized the mean and standard deviation of the independent and dependent variables’ items.

Management&Marketing, volume X, issue 2/2012 Table 3 Descriptive Analysis of Variables Variables Mean S.D Lecturer 3.26 0.557 Satisfaction Lecturer 3.59 0.615 Commitment Lecturer 3.58 0.572 Performance Correlation Analysis Table 4 shows the results of correlation analysis. Both variables “satisfaction” (correlation coefficient value .681) and “commitment”


(correlation coefficient value .597) were found positively correlated with lecturer performance. The statistical results showed significance relationship between the variables. Table 4

Correlation Analysis Variables Lecturer Satisfaction Lecturer Commitment *Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed). Regression Analysis Statistical analysis of the data showed that 82.7% (adjusted R2 = 0.827) of the variance in faculty

Faculty Retention .681 .000 .597 .000

performance had been explained by “lecturer satisfaction” and “lecturer commitment”. Table 5

Model Faculty Performance

R .859

Model Summary Adjusted R Square R Square .827 .827

Std. Error of the Estimate .76559

Results of Hypotheses The computation for hypotheses are comprehensively depicts the results. The P value of all hypotheses is 0.001 which shows the significant relationship. However, the data for analysis is small i.e. only 82 respondents, hence, it may effects on statistical computations. Standardized coefficients score is also acceptable. Hence both hypotheses of this study are accepted. Both “satisfaction” (p-

value .001) and “commitment” (p-value .001) were found significant in explaining faculty performance. Among two independent variables “satisfaction” was found to be the most significant factor in explaining faculty performance (SC = .212) followed by “commitment” (SC = .182). According to estimated model a positive and significant impact of the independent variables was empirically obtained.


Management&Marketing, volume X, issue 2/2012

This research supported that satisfaction effect on commitment as found in the studies of Mathis & Jackson, (2005) and Ostroff, (1992). The more satisfied the personnel the more committed s/he will be to the organization. Azeem (2010) proposed that the organization success not only dependents on how it makes the most of human competencies, but also how it stimulates commitment to an organization. This study also affirmed the relationship between satisfaction and performance of the lecturers of private universities; the findings of this study validate the researches of Abdullah et al (2011) Alzaidi (2008) and Judge et al (2001). The verification of hypothesis showed that, the satisfaction level of employee impact on willingness to put in his best in the job thereby could reach the highest level of productivity in the industry as a whole. Commitment is very important for organization and plays a pivotal role in organizational success and becomes the main element of human resources management (Mowday, 1998) which

affecting job performance (Breaux, 2004). This study found positive relationship between commitment and performance which confirms the results of the studies of Fredberg et al. (2008) Michelet et al. (2007) and Park et al, (2005). The high satisfaction and commitment level in faculty members lead them to achieve better job tasks, acceptance of organization values, low absenteeism, more input in decision making, increase tenure, loyalty and organization goal. HEC and private sector universities should take initiatives for the faculty members and try to bridge the gap between the faculty members and performance. They should also build a sophisticated knowledge based culture in private sector universities to create, communicate and spread the knowledge between and among the faculty members and the universities. Lastly, it is suggested that the universities should take initiatives regarding their faculty member’s satisfaction and commitment level and maintain the level of job performance outcomes.

Abdullah, A., Bilau, A. A., Enegbuma, W. I., Musibau, Ajagbe, A. M. & Ali, K. N (2011), “Evaluation of Job Satisfaction and Performance of Employees in Small and Medium Sized Construction Firms in Nigeria”, 2nd International Conference on Construction and Project Management IPEDR, (15), 225-229. Ahmad, H., Ahmad, K., Shah, I. A (2010), “Relationship between Job Satisfaction, Job Performance Attitude towards Work and Organizational Commitment”, European Journal of Social Sciences, 18 (2), 257-267. Allen, N. J., and Meyer, J. P (1990), “The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the Organization”, Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 1-18. Alzaidi, A. M (2008), “A Qualitative Study of Job Satisfaction among Secondary School Head Teachers in the City of Jeddah, Saudia Arabia”, ARECLS, 4, 115. Azeem, S. M (2010), “Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment among Employees in the Sultanate of Oman”, Psychology, 1(4), 295-299. Breaux, K. T (2004), “The Effect of Program Commitment on the Degree of Participative Congruence and Managerial Performance in a Budgeting Setting” Dissertation Doctor of Philosophy, Louisiana State University.

Management&Marketing, volume X, issue 2/2012


Christen, M., Iyer, G., and Soberman, D (2006), “Job Satisfaction, Job Performance, and Effort: A Reexamination Using Agency Theory”, Journal of Marketing, 70, 137–150. Fisher, C.D. Schoenfeldt, L.F. and Shaw, J.B (2006), “Human Resource Management”, 6th ed., Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. Fredberg, T., Beer, M., Eisenstat, R., Foote, N. & Norrgren, F (2008), “Embracing Commitment and Performance: CEOs and Practices Used to Manage Paradox”, Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 08-052. Retrieved at 01 Nov, 2011, from Hussain, I (2005), “Education, Employment and Economic Development in Pakistan”, in Robert Hathaway (ed), Education Reform in Pakistan, Washington: Woodrow Wilson Centre. Hyder A. & Reilly, B (2005), “The Public and Private Sector Pay Gap in Pakistan: A Quantile Regression Analysis”, The Pakistan Development Review, 44(3), 271-306. Isen, A. M. & Baron, R. A (1991), “Positive affect as a factor in organizational behavior”, Research in Organizational Behavior, 13, 1-53. Judge, T. A., Thoresen, C. J., Bono, J. E. & Patton, G. K (2001), “The Job Satisfaction – Job Performance Relationship: A Qualitative & Quantitative Review”, Psychological Bulletin, 127(3), 376-407. Long, J.L. and Swortzel, K.A (2007), “Factors influencing job satisfaction of extension agents in the Mississippi State University Extension Service”, Proceedings of the 2007 AAAE Research Conference ( 41-53). Minneapolis, Minnesota. Mathis, R .L. & Jackson, J. H (2005), “Human Resource Management Essential Perspectives”, (3rd ed, Canada: Thomson South-Western. Meyer, J. P., and Allen, J. J (1991), “A Three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment”, Human Resource Management Review, 1(1), 61-89. Meyer, J. P., and Allen, J. J (1997), “Commitment in the Workplace: Theory, Research and Application”, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Michelet, T., Bioulac, B., Guehl, D., Escola, L. & Burbau, P (2007), “Impact of Commitment on Performance Evaluation in the Rostral Cingulate Motor Area”, The Journal of Neuroscience, 27(28), 7482–7489. Mowday, R. T., Steers, R. M., and Porter, L. W (1979), “The measurement of organizational commitment”, Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 14, 224-247. Mowday, R.T (1998), “Reflections on the Study and Relevance of Organizational Commitment”. Human Resource Management Review, 8(4), 387- 401. Mubarak, R. Z., Wahab, Z., and Khan, N. R (2012), “Faculty Retention in Higher Education Institutions of Pakistan”, Journal of Theories and Research in Education, 7(2), 1-14. Ostroff, C (1992), “The Relationship between Satisfaction, Attitudes, and Performance: Organizational Level Analysis”, Journal of Applied Psychology, 77(6), 963-974. Park, S., Henkin, A.B., and Egley, R (2005), “Teacher team commitment, teamwork and trust: exploring associations”, Journal of Educational Administration, 43(5), 462-479.


Management&Marketing, volume X, issue 2/2012

Pettijohn, C., Linda, P., and Taylor, A.J (2007), “Salesperson perceptions of ethical behaviors: Their influence on job satisfaction and turnover intentions”, Journal of Business Ethics, 78(4), 547-557. Randall, D.M (1987), “Commitment and the organization: The organization man revisited”, The Academy of Management Review, 12(3), 460-471. Rice, E. M., & Schneider, G. T (1994), “A Decade of Teacher Empowerment: An Empirical Analysis of Teacher Involvement in Decision Making”, Journal of Educational Administration, 32(1), 43-59. Romzek, B.S (1989), “Personal consequences of employee commitment”, Academy of Management Journal 32(3), 649-661. Rotenberry F., J.,Moberg (2007), “Assessing the impact of job involvement on performance”, Management Research News, 30(3), 203-215. Skibba, J. S (2002), “Personality and Job Satisfaction: An Investigation of Central Wisconsin Firefighters”, Unpublished paper, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Smeenk, S., Teelken, C., Eisinga, R., & Doorewaard, H (2008), “ An International Comparison of the Effects of HRM Practices and Organizational Commitment on Quality of Job Performances among European University Employees”, Higher Education Policy, 21(3), 323-344. Sommer, S., Bae, S. H., and Luthans, F (1996), “Organizational commitment across cultures: the impact of antecedents on Korean employees”, Human Relation, 49(7), 977-93. Suraya, W. H., and Yunus, J. N. (2012). “Principal Leadership Styles in HighAcademic Performance of Selected Secondary Schools in Kelantan Darulnaim”, International Journal of Independent Research and Studies, 1(2), 57-67. Tella, A., Ayeni, C.O., and Popoola, S.O (2007), “Work motivation, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment of library personnel in academic and research libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria”, Library Philosophy and Practice, 4, 1-17. Warsi, S., Fatima, N., and Sahibzada, S.A (2009), “Study on relationship between organizational commitment and its determinants among private sector employees of Pakistan”, International Review of Business Research Papers, 5(3), 399–410. Yousef, D.A (2000), “Organizational commitment: a mediator of the relationship leadership behavior with job satisfaction and performance in a non-western country”, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 15(1), 6-24. Yusof, A. R. M., Hassan, Z., Rahman, S. A., and Ghouri, A. M. (2012). “Educational Service Quality at Public Higher Educational Institutions: A Proposed Framework and Importance of the Sub-dimensions”. International Journal of Economics Business and Management Studies, 1(2), 36-49. Yussof, I., Ismail, R., and Osman, Z (2011), “Workers’ Competency, Performance and Competitiveness in Malaysia’s Private Education Sector”, Malaysian Journal of Economics, 45, 61-70. Zembylas, M., and Papanastasiou, E (2004), “Job satisfaction among school teachers in Cyprus”, Journal of Educational Administration, 42(3), 357–374.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay


...Checklist for Short-stay (Non Professional/Tourist) YES NO 1 Application form : Fully completed in English or French, signed and dated by the applicant. If the applicant is under the age of 18 both parents must sign the form. Two passport photographs : Requirement : Frontal view of the head, recent, lifelike. In color with a uniform and light-colored background. Clear facial features and eyes – not covered by hair or frame of glasses. Head coverings are accepted for religious reasons. (See illustrated guide for photo for French visa) Passport : Validity of at least 90 days from the date of expiry of the requested visa (and issued less than 10 years ago) . UAE residence visa valid at least 90 days from the date of expiry of the requested visa. At least two free pages. 2 copies of personal data pages of the passport, Previous Schengen/ UK / US visas and UAE residence visa. 2 3 4 Original letter from the local employer stating purpose of travel, position, monthly salary and begin date of employment in the UAE. Copy of last six months personal bank statements. Copy of ITINERARY prepared by the travel agency (for those going on tour) Copy of Overseas Medical Insurance policy + Repatriation, evacuation cover (minimum coverage equivalent to €30,000) valid for all Schengen countries. Copy of Air Ticket or PNR (Booking printout) 5 6 7 8 9 Confirmed Hotel booking (with hotel letterhead, full address, telephone/fax numbers) or original and a photocopy of......

Words: 357 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Generating Sales

...Why does branding help generate sale, and why is it not effective in some situations? Branding seems to be the firstly principal notion when people discuss about marketing. Marketers always take branding as the foremost thing into their consideration when launching a new product and repositioning a product’s image. “Back to the primitive time, branding was used as the tool in differentiating one product from another. However, in today’s world among fierce and pressure competition, the role of branding has been developed to be more sophisticated as it has been recognized as the central of product’s personality”. (Murphy,1988) In this essay, it would be focused on the reason why branding helps generating sales and why it is sometimes not effective. ​ To begin with, “branding is the fundamental approach which marketers normally adopt in order to add more distinctive values to the core product and differentiate those products from other competitors. Hence, they would be able to draw customers’ interest in purchasing that particular product. Branding sometimes even develop product’s image to be more premium in customers’ perception and thus increase company’s ability to charge more and generate higher sales”.(Mayer and Vambery,2013) For instance, “the sales of BMW car is higher than Ford car’s even though the price of BMW is significantly higher. This represents that customers would make the decision according to their brand value perceptions that BMW car which they believe it......

Words: 605 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Accidental Tourist

...The Choice Compared to other novels that deal with love affairs and romances, The Accidental Tourist by Anne Tyler is different because it takes the reader on a trip through the character’s minds. Macon Leary’s wife separates herself from him. Their problems begin with the death of their son, Ethan Leary. That is not to say that they agree on raising him, because they didn’t. “When Ethan was born, he only brought out more of their differences” (16). They choose to raise Ethan differently. Sarah wants to let him be happy and free, while Macon wants him to be more scheduled and structured. The already struggling relationship is now even more troubled. Macon is not an affectionate person and his wife, Sarah, would surely validate that. When he is going away on business and needs somewhere to board his dog Edward, he encounters Muriel Pritchett, who is straightforward and strange with her introduction. In the beginning it is hard to determine what Macon’s choice will be. If he chooses Sarah, he may not be able to have her because of the way that she feels. Although Macon still feels connected to Sarah, he is more compatible with Muriel. Sarah is arguably much more normal than Macon, depending on which definition of normal is used. Sarah is more of a team player than Macon is. Macon keeps to his systems, while Sarah wants them to make decisions together. “What harm would it do to wait it out? You’d be showing some concern. You’d be telling me we’re in this......

Words: 1037 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Tourist Destinations

...HND Hospitality Management UNIT 39 - TOURIST DESTINATIONS LO3 -Understand how the characteristics of destinations affect their appeal to tourists. LO4 –Understand issues likely to affect the popularity of tourist destinations. [pic] [pic] Name: Carole Lewis TABLES OF CONTENTS PAGES Details of the topic 1 Name ID number Date of submission Contents page 2 3.1) Compare the appeal of current leading tourist destinations with that 3 of currently developing tourist destinations. 3.2) Evaluate how characteristics of a tourist destination affect its appeal 4 4.1) Analyse issues that affect the popularity of tourist destination 4 4.1) Analyse issues that affect the popularity of tourist destination (cont’d) 5 4.2) Discuss the potential for responsible tourism to enhance the host community at 5 worldwide tourist destinations 4.2) Discuss the potential for responsible tourism to enhance the host community at 6 worldwide tourist destinations (cont’d) References ...

Words: 2391 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Ukraine on the World Tourist Market

...Paper: “Ukraine on the world tourist market” 4th year student Scientific advisor: “International Economics-KROK Exclusive” PhD., Associate Professor Programme : Titarenko D.Y. Ilarionova N. M. _________ (signature) ______________________ ( resolution “For defence” ) ___________ _________________ ( date ) ( signature) Kiyv-2012 Contents Introduction 3 1.1. Characteristic of tourist activity and its influence on economy of Ukraine 7 1.2. Tourist resources and infrastructure - the main components of development of tourism at Ukraine 16 Section 2. A place of Ukraine in development of the international tourism 20 2.1. Development of the Ukrainian travel business and its role in the international tourism 20 2.2. Modernization of tourist and recreational capacity of regions of......

Words: 12452 - Pages: 50

Premium Essay

Philippine Regions

...Region 1 or the Ilocos Region is composed of four provinces and a city—Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, La Union, Pangasinan, and Dagupan City. Majority of the population verbalizes Ilocano, the third most astronomically immense verbalized language in the Philippines, albeit a consequential number additionally verbalize Pangasinense. The region has a coast and hilly ranges that are prone to typhoon in the wet months, but devastatingly sultry during the dry season. This is the backdrop of Ilocano food. It’s salty due to the proximity to the sea. There is even an entire province denominated after asin (salt) in Pangasinan. Fish is preserved by drying, and of course, reduced into a paste or sauce by fermentation. Vegetables are hardy and can weather the rains or extreme heat. Thus, you have dishes like pinakbet or dinengdeng—locally sourced vegetable, flavored with fish paste. Love basking on the sand? The coast provides a colorful array of it from the greyest of grey to the white beaches of Pagudpud. There’s even one beach that is just pristine pebble. Many of these beaches cater to tourists, like the surfing areas of San Juan in La Amalgamation. But take a while to get disoriented, and you’ll still find obnubilated gems in minute towns. Architectural masterpieces? There are three UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Ilocos Sur alone. For the artist in you, take your time to learn the tedious process of weaving abel. During the colonial area, abel was so famous, it......

Words: 1372 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Tourist Destinations’ Appeal

...Access Examining Kenya’s Tourist Destinations’ Appeal: the Perspectives of Domestic Tourism Market Rayviscic M. Ndivo1*, Judith N. Waudo1 and Fuchaka Waswa2 1 2 School of Hospitality & Tourism Management, Kenyatta University, Kenya School of Environmental Studies, Kenyatta University, Kenya Abstract Kenya’s tourism activity has always been centered on the coastal beaches and a few game parks despite of being endowed with a unique combination of tourist attractions spread throughout the country. Noting this skewed nature of tourism development, this study aimed at investigating the status of appeal of the different Kenya’s tourist regions from the perspective of the domestic market with the goal of examining the efficacy of the destination appeal enhancers. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires and analysed using mainly descriptive statistics. The study found out that while majority of Kenyans considered taking a holiday as being important to them, a significant majority of them were not be aware of most of the country’s touristic attractions and hence, frequented only a few of the country’s attractions, mainly the coastal beaches. Further, the study found out that the most important sources of travel information available to Kenyans were personal experience and information from significant others; travel marketers were considered as being the least significant source of information. The study thus, concluded that the limited scope of tourist activities......

Words: 6027 - Pages: 25

Premium Essay

Tourist Destination

...research is to analyze main tourist destinations of the world in terms of how their characteristics draws the attention of tourist. The research also looks at factors or issues which may bring a negative appeal to a destination and destroy its brand image and how best these issues can be fixed for future generations. II. Objectives * To analyze present and predict future trends of main tourist destinations and generators of the world. * To discuss the cultural, social and physical features of a tourist destination which brings appeal to tourist. * To discuss how characteristics of a destination may affect its appeal both negatively and positively. * To compare the appeal of a current leading tourist destination and a current developing tourist destination. Literature Review People travel to places for various reasons of maybe pleasure or business. These places are known as Tourist Destinations. According to (WiseGeek, 2014) "A tourist destination is basically a travel destination that attracts large numbers of travellers, or tourists." There are certain aspects of a destination that may attract tourist to a certain country and there may also be negative aspects that may arise which will decrease the amount of tourist arrival for a country. The destination itself, customers’ ability to access the destination, cultural appeal of the destination and the destination’s features and attractions are what makes a destination appealing to a tourist, stated......

Words: 585 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Iloilo City as a Tourist Destination

...ILOILO CITY as a Tourist Destination I. Executive Summary Iloilo City which is also one of the major urban centers in the Philippines, is a fast-growing modern city but has kept its old charm and unspoiled environment. Iloilo’s rich heritage is showcased in many festivals celebrated in the city and various towns of the province. Dubbed as the “Province of Festivals”, Iloilo is proud of its nationally acclaimed Dinagyang Festival. Iloilo City is indeed a repository of ancient and historical heritage. Every visitor can not miss-out the iconic imagery on the structures found in the city impose on the viewers’ perception. The mixture of its colonial past and western influence is a unique feature of Iloilo City’s line-up of cultural and artistic treasures. The glorious and colorful history of Iloilo City is more vividly preserved in the monuments of heritage that continue to amaze visitors who come to the city. Written historical records may only possess the informal on of the past but they can never take the place of living heritage as undying testimonies of a people, their struggles, aspirations dreams and their cultural uniqueness. This is the living testimony of Iloilo City’s ancient and historical heritage. Today, it is a popular convention and meeting destination, with its many first class accommodations and an airport of international standards. Iloilo also serves as the gateway to the region and a favorite stopover for tourists heading to the beaches of......

Words: 9332 - Pages: 38

Premium Essay

China Tourist Trend

...development of Chinese tourists as you can see on the graph below: The leapfrog development of Chinese outbound tourism   Studies show that although most Chinese travelers still rely on travel agents to arrange travel, in the future there will be more and more travelers who use Internet and mobile devices to make a reservation. In the future, there will be 70% of Chinese travelers using the Internet, which is the biggest proportion of all countries in the Asia Pacific region.   The study also found that Chinese people are the most keen on mobile devices, 45 percent of official travelers and 33% of leisure travelers use mobile devices with travel arrangements.   Furthermore, in terms of infrastructure, the report predicted that by 2030, China will have 40,000 km high-speed railway, far more than other countries in the Asia Pacific region. Chinese travelers will need more reliable, more accurate and more powerful tools to help them with travel arrangements. CORE TRENDS TWO: PERSONALIZED TRAVELS   The report reveals the second trend is the personalization: that Chinese travelers demand more personalized travels. Currently, 44% of travelers organize their travel plans independently, looking for new destinations. This figure is expected to grow to 50% in the future. Another important phenomenon is female Business travelers and elderly travelers growth. In China, more than a third of Business travelers are women, the highest number for the Asia-Pacific region; while in......

Words: 913 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Manipur as Tourist Destination

...Manipur as a Tourist Destination Manipur, the land popularly referred to as the ‘Switzerland of India’ is the right tourist destination for nature lovers. Located in North East India amidst breathtaking blue hills, Manipur is amazingly soul-captivating. The name in itself means ‘A jeweled land’ and it is just right that the state was described the ‘Jewel of India’ by Late Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of independent India. The state is rich in every sense, be it in the beauty of nature or the culture of the land. Kangla The centre of Manipur's power till 1891, the historical embodiment of Manipur Rulers and the people of Manipur, Kangla have a significant place in the heart and mind of the people of Manipur Govindajee temple, outer and inner moat and other relics are perfect reflections of the rich art and culture of Manipur and her civilization. Khonghampat Orchidarium 10 kms. from Imphal on National Highway No. 39 is the Central Orchidarium which covers 200 acres and houses over 110 rare varieties of orchids, which include dozens of endemic species. The peak blooming season is March-April. Sadu Chiru Waterfall About 20 Kms. from Imphal beside the Tiddim Road (NH150) is a picturesque site famous for its perennial Water Fall in a scenic foot hill. There are three waterfall spots. This is a newly open tourist spot. Loktak Lake 48 Kms. from Imphal, is the largest fresh water lake in the North East Region. From the Tourist Bunglow set atop Sendra Island...

Words: 704 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

International Tourist Research

...Questionnaire Dear Sir / Madam, This survey is to understand international tourist expectation for selection of tourist destinations & service quality at different tourist destinations with special reference to Uttar Pradesh cities, being conducted as a part of my doctoral programme. I shall be grateful if you could spare a few minutes to participate in it. The information provided by you will be kept confidential and be used only for academic purpose. Thank you for your cooperation. International tourist Profile |1. | Gender: |Male |x |Female | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |2. | Age (in years): |Below 30 | |30 - 45 |x |46 - 60 | |60 & above | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |3...

Words: 866 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Tourist Attraction

...Top 10 tourist destinations in Thailand Top 10 tourist attraction in Singapore Top 10 tourist attraction in japan Top 10 tourist attraction in Malaysia Top 10 tourist attraction in china Top 10 tourist attraction in india Top 10 tourist attraction in south korea Top 10 tourist attraction in Philippines Top 10 tourist attraction in Hongkong Top 10 tourist attraction in Russia Africa Top 10 tourist attraction in Seychelles Top 10 tourist attractionin Equatorial Guinea Top 10 tourist attraction in gabon top 10 tourist attraction in......

Words: 322 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Suicide Tourist

...The Suicide Tourist: Bringing Marriage and Family Together as One As people grow up, they think of what college they want to attend, what job they want to have, who they want to marry, and how many kids they want to have. Marriage and family are popular cultural aspects in the United States and around the world. Marriage and family can be shown through multiple views such as the media, magazines, and books. The video, The Suicide Tourist, demonstrates ways in which marriage and families plays a big role in decision-making in order to make someone happy. Craig Ewert’s wife believes that her husband is able to go through with this process of suicide injection, but knows she will miss him dearly once he passes. Their children will also be affected by this process and this event will bring their family as a whole closer together. While some people believe that Craig is doing the wrong thing and that his wife should be ashamed for allowing her husband to go through with this, I believe that it is the right thing if Craig and his wife both agree with what is going to happen. Even though Mary is losing her husband, there are also some benefits to Craig passing away from this disease. These benefits are that his wife and children will become stronger as individuals, come closer together as a family, and also financially they will be able to settle down. Mary has stuck with Craig throughout this entire journey and will be there for him when he passes away. During the video, you......

Words: 968 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Transportation for Tourist

...or traveler are prefer to use taxi, buses, LRT, KTM or KLIA Ekspres to go to some places. It is very easy to find a taxi station in KL and the taxi are always there, it is everywhere very easy to spot taxi in Malaysia since the taxi is colored in white and red, blue or blue and red and sometimes there are green taxi also. For the Airport Limo Taxi the taxi is colored in stunning black. The blue taxi is either from a Blue Cab Malaysia or Sunlight Radio Taxi Services. The red and white taxi is like in the figure 1 and the blue taxi is like in the figure 2. In figure 3 is the blue and red taxi meanwhile in figure 4 there is green taxi and the last but not least in figure 5 is the limo taxi. All of the above is a main transport that tourist will use to see around in Kuala Lumpur, not just in KL but in Malaysia. But if travelling with taxi it need to use a lot of money since it is metered taxi. But for a cheaper cost to travel is by using the buses or the trains. As for the bus, there are a station called Pudu Sentral (Puduraya) or at the Terminal Bersepadu Selatan (TBS). The difference between this two stations is Pudu Sentral is only used for a short distance buses. Before TBS exist Pudu Sentral is the main local service bus terminus in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. But since the TBS has been operate, it’s become the main long distance bus terminal in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The TBS is located at Bandar Tasik Selatan, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and Pudu Sentral is located......

Words: 2037 - Pages: 9