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Topic 9: Control, Punishment and Victims

In: Social Issues

Submitted By kaywhite
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TOPIC 9: CONTROL, PUNISHMENT AND VICTIMS
Situational Crime Prevention - Clarke: * Three features of measures aimed at situational crime prevention: 1. Directed at specific crimes 2. involve managing/altering immediate environment of the crime 3. aim at increasing the effort and risks of committing crime and reducing the rewards * Underlying situational crime prevention approaches is a rational choice theory of crime * Most crime is opportunistic so SCP measures reduces the opportunities * Displacement - criticises SCP - does not reduce crime, simply displaces it (several forms) * Spatial - move elsewhere to commit crime * Temporal - committing crime at different time * Target - choose different victim * Tactical - use different method * Functional - commit different type of crime * Evaluation: * SCP works to some extent in reducing some sorts of crime but with most measures there is likely to be some displacement * Assumes criminals make rational calculations - may be committed under the influence of drugs/alcohol?
Environmental Crime Prevention * Wilson and Kellings - 'broken windows' stands for all the signs of disorder and lack of concern for other found in some neighbourhoods * Leaving broken windows unrepaired sends out the signal that no-one cares * Without remedial action from formal and informal social control, the situation deteriorates, pushing respectable people to move out and area becomes magnet for deviants * Solution to crackdown on any disorder involves a 2 fold strategy: 1. Environmental improvement strategy: any broken window must be repaired immediately otherwise more will follow 2. Zero tolerance policing strategy: police must proactively tackle even the slightest sign of disorder - this will prevent serious crime taking root
Social and community crime…...

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