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CHAPTER 1
The Problem and its Background Introduction If you could improve performance, increase student morale an develop self esteem of a student, would you? According to B.F Skinner, behavior is a function of its consequences. The learner will repeat the desired behavior if positive reinforcement follows the behavior. Skinner said, “When someone behaves in a way we find reinforcing, we make him more likely to do so again by praising or commending him. We attest to the value of the person’s behavior by patting on the back, or saying good or right or giving him a token of our esteem such as prize, honor or award.”
Guthrie assume that learning depends on action an organism must do, it is to learn. Once the student performed the required response, the teacher must present the student a reward, which will capture his or her attention that the student will eventually further improve his or her performance. For example, when students do exceptionally ell in class, he or she will earn medal or a star. Another, the student will be more motivated if his or her teacher will say “good job” or “very great answer” for every correct answer and good performance.
The researcher believes that rewards have something to do with learning and we assume that motivation is important to the learner. A reward must be something desirable; without the desire, there can be no reward (Tria, 1998)
Since the researchers have mentioned the concept of positive reinforcement issue, let us specify its aspects.
We have the tangible and intangible reinforcement. The tangible reinforcement, then are medal, a star, certificate of recognition, tokens and other desirable things. On the other hand, e has the intangible reinforcement that means verbal phrase or intrinsic reward.
Although there is positive reinforcement in school, the question is its level of implementation. If positive reinforcement is properly implemented, will it increase student’s productivity? In this manner, the researchers believed that there is a way of applying positive reinforcement in such a way that would be beneficial to the students in terms of an increase of performance.
There are three kinds of positive reinforcement used: (praise[verbal/written], token and incentive)
Praise – essential in teachers daily contacts with the learners in school. It is satisfying feedback that focuses on the strength of the child. Token – given to a child or student for showing commendable behavior, performance, skills, etc.., that will later be exchanged with something tangible like candy, money, ice cream, etc. or non tangible things like joining a trip, given longer recess, joining a certain association or games, etc. Incentive – given to a child or student after he displays certain acceptable behavior based on the standard set by a teacher, an administrator or leader, or a parent. This may be a form of praise and materials things which have significant value or interest to a person.
Theoretical Framework
According to reinforcement theory, the learner will repeat the desired behavior if positive reinforcement follows the behavior.
According to B.F Skinner, the learning should be based on positive reinforcement. And that aversive stimulation should be used as little as possible. Skinner preference for positive reinforcement is based in part on the side effect of punishment.
Burns (1995) conceives of learning as a relatively permanent change in behavior with behavior including both observable activity and internal processes such as thinking, attitudes and emotions.
It is clear that Burns includes motivation in this definition of learning. Thus, the main purpose of this study is to determine if there is a significant effect of positive reinforcement to student’s development.
Brisbane said,”effective praise can be informative as well as reinforcing. It can provide encouragement and support, and can help teachers establish friendly relationship with students. Teachers must know then when and how to give praise if they are to realize benefits from their praising.
Conceptual Framework
A conceptual framework is used in research to outline possible courses of action to present a performed approach to a system analysis project. The framework is built from a set of concepts linked to a planned or existing system of methods, behaviors, functions, relationships and objects. A conceptual framework or model in positive reinforcement involves is a metal image of the realm of positive reinforcement, how it is put together and how it works. Your conceptual framework or model is a way of looking what you are doing.
As discussed in the research, the concept is simple: the established idea, based from previous researches. States that positive reinforcement will affect student’s development.
OUTPUT

Highly Rated performance of Grade IV pupil

PROCESS * Quetionaire

* Observation

* Statistical treatment of data

* Checklist
INPUT
Demographic Profile
Name
Age
Gender
Grade/level in school
The effectiveness of positive reinforcement of teachers in terms of the following domain? * Tangible reinforcement * Token of Appreciation * Certificates of acknowledgeement * medals

* Intangible Reinforcement * Verbal phrases
Is there a significant effect of applying the positive reinforcement to students development?

Given this model, the research paradigm of the study is presented in Figure 1, for a clearer understanding and appreciates.

L

Feedback

Figure 1.Paradigm of the study
Based from the theories and related literature and studies, the research paradigm that serves as guide to the study is the system’s approach or input-process-output model devised by Stoner, Freeman and Gilbert Jr. (1995)
According to this model, a system has flows of information, materials and energy (including human energy) that enters the system from the environment as inputs, undergo from formation processes with the system (operation that alter them) and exist the systems as outputs (Birion 2005)
Base from the paradigm of the study, the application of positive reinforcement has the following variable: Tangible reinforcement and Intangible reinforcement.
Combining all this variable and figures, the paradigm states that the application of positive reinforcement has a significant influence to student’s development.
Statement of the problem
The main objective of this study is to determine if there is a significant effect of the application of positive reinforcement for student’s development. 1. What is the student’s personal profile in terms of: 2.1. Age 2.2. Gender 2.3. Grade/ level in school
2. What is the effectiveness of positive reinforcement of teachers in terms of the following domain? 2.1. Tangible reinforcement 2.1.1 Token Appreciation
2.1.2. Certificate of acknowledgement
2.1.3. Medals
2.2 Intangible reinforcement
2.2.1. Verbal phrases
3. Is there a significant effect of applying the positive reinforcement to students development?
Hypothesis
Null Hypothesis Ho - there is no significant effect of the application of the positive reinforcement to student’s development.
Scope and Delimitation
This study that focuses in the application of positive reinforcement to the development of the grade IV students of Itaas Elementary School, NBP Reservation, Poblacion , Muntinlupa City.
This study is only limited to select grade four students of IES. Furthermore, the study is deemed limited only to the study of students from section 1 to 4.

Significance of the Study
This study is deemed significant for the number of reasons:
The result of the study can be a benchmark in enhancing the positive reinforcement of teachers in schools nationwide.
Different schools may derive strategies based on the observations and result of the study. This could provide a new dimension in the study of positive reinforcement. Furthermore, this could give a new way of increasing student’s productivity and school profit which would benefit the teachers and the nation as well.
The study will also give way to the proper and adequate level; of motivation a teacher must perform which is beneficial to the student’s development.
Lastly, this study is timely which will lead to renewed a awareness of social responsibility and attention to a school’s one of the most significant assets- the students.

Definition of Terms
The following terms are defined base from their operational use in this study:
Intangible Reinforcement- it includes verbal phrases and rewarding phrases that could increase the tendency to repeat the desirable performance.
Motivation- refers to the drive that gives the student to perform better and futher improve their productivity.
Recognition- it is a reward that acknowledges the desirable action and performance of the students.
Significant effect- refers to the quality or potency of the positive reinforcement that will result to student’s development.
Student productivity- this refers to the rte of production; the rte at which student produces self development.
Student’s Self development- these terms refers to a student’s commitment to excellence by means of improving his/her performance in terms of his/her productivity. It also pertains to student’s faith in his/her competencies in doing his/her work. Moreover, it refers to the student’s belief in his/her potential for development.
Tangible reinforcement- it includes things or materials that can be seen to motivate the students.

Chapter 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
Persons with authority in this field, both local and foreign, wrote several literature and conducted studies. This chapter contains those literature and studies that are pertinent and substantial to the discussion of the study of positive reinforcement and its significant effect to the development of selected grade IV students.
Foreign Literature
Ann Logsdon, (2010) Positive Reinforcements - Fix Behavior Problems with Positive Reinforcement
According to the article, using positive reinforcement is an easy way to nix behavior problems. You can use positive reinforces that can help you encourage your child to do everyday tasks you need her to perform. Picking up after her, brushing her teeth, and even getting to bed on time are just a few of the things that can be improved using positive reinforcement. Any type of reward or incentive you give your child that results in increasing the behavior you want your child to perform is a positive reinforce.
Positive reinforces can also include physical rewards your child would like. Common tangible rewards used by parents and teachers might use include: Healthy snacks; Gum, candy (if parents approve and in small amounts); Age-appropriate toys chosen from a reward box; Special stickers such as scratch and sniff, flashy, cute, sporty, or other unique stickers; Small items that are currently popular, such as Live Strong bracelets or other items; A child's choice of a favorite item; Cool pencils; and Tickets to be saved to trade in for larger rewards.

Positive Reinforces - Increase Desired Behaviors with Positive Reinforcement
According to her in the study of, Increase Desired Behaviors with Positive Reinforcement, positive reinforces help students learn behaviors necessary to be successful academically and socially. For example, a student's behavior goal may be to increase the amount of time he stays on-task in class. Positive reinforces would be used as a reward for improving over a period of time.
Positive reinforces include any actions, consequences, or rewards that are provided to a student and cause an increase in desired behavior. They may include rewards and privileges that students like and enjoy. For example, a student may earn physical rewards such as school supplies, healthy snacks, or choice of free-time activities.
Kidsmakingchange.com, (2003-2007), in this study Positive Reinforcement for Children
This article about Positive Reinforcement is designed to help parents, and any person who works with kids, affect positive change in children and their relationships with them. Leading experts, supported by a vast quantity of research, studies and parents, recommend using positive reinforcement to change behavior in children. One of the most supported and successful methods are the use of a reward based incentive system, sometimes called a “token economy”.
Positive Reinforcement is “catching” a kid doing something you want them to do and rewarding it. The child gets attention and reward as positive reinforcement for doing the right thing and will focus on repeating that behavior Positive Reinforcement works because it gives children positive goals to work towards instead of only focusing on negative consequences.

Brenda L. Gargus, (2000), Positive Communication (intangible Reinforcement) Positive communication is a tool to reinforce good behavior and eliminate bad behavior; it builds self-esteem and inspires confidence in children. All children need to feel loved and accepted, and we can communicate those feelings to children by the way we speak.
Once we develop the habit of consistent positive reinforcement at home, we will see that communicating is easier, and we will also be helping our son or daughter learn to communicate with the outside world. By the time they are in elementary school, kids need the self-esteem boost gained when positive reinforcement is in practice.

Foreign study
Rosalind Charlesworth and Willard W. Hartup, (2000), Positive Social Reinforcement
In this study, an observational method was devised for obtaining normative information on the amount and kinds of positive social reinforcement dispensed by preschool-age children to each other in nursery school. Data were collected in 4 preschool classes. It was found that children in the older groups reinforced their peers at a significantly higher rate than those in the younger groups and that the amount of reinforcement given was positively related to the amount received. Reinforcement was dispensed in a higher proportion when a child was engaged in dramatic play activity than when he was engaged in other pursuits (such as art, music, or table games). About half the reinforcements were given in response to overtures from the recipients and half spontaneously. The consequence of reinforcement was, in largest proportion, the continuation of the recipient's activity at the time of reinforcement.
Numerous attempts are currently being made to study patterns of young children’s social behavior within the conceptual framework of reinforcement theory. Only a few studies (Floyd, 1964: Hartup, 1964: Patterson, Bricker, & Greene, 19964), however, have dealt particularly with preschool-age peers as agents of reinforcement. The results of the Patterson et al. (1964 study strongly support the utility of applying reinforcement.
Tanya L. Eckert, 2006, in her study entitled: The effect of performance feedback on Elementary-Aged students’ oral reading fluency
The current study examined the effects of providing two different types of performance feedback, performance feedback on words read correctly (PFWC) and performance feedback on words read incorrectly (PFWI), on the oral reading fluency of six elementary-aged students. For all of the participants, PFWI resulted in higher levels of oral reading fluency than PFWC. In addition, for a majority of the participants, PFWC resulted in lower levels of oral reading errors than PFWI. These results suggest that providing students with performance feedback on the number or words read correctly may enhance the reading fluency of students experiencing reading difficulties. The implications of these results for intervention selection are discussed.
Jolivette, et al (2000) their study on Programs and Strategies for Positive behavior, revealed that;
Planned positive reinforcement is very effective in promoting desirable change in student behavior. Reinforcement is a powerful behavioral principle that often guides our behavior.

There are five types of reinforcements:
Natural Reinforcement: This type of reinforcement occurs naturally from the appropriate behavior. The goal should always be to move the student towards natural and intrinsic reinforcement (i.e. the reinforcement comes from within the child such as positive thoughts or feelings). Social Reinforces: These are reinforces that are socially mediated by teachers, parents, other adults, and peers. They express approval and praise for appropriate behavior. Comments ("Excellent work," "I like the way you are working with your group"), written approval ("Way to go!"), and nonverbal expressions of approval (smiling, clapping, nods of approval) are all very effective reinforces.Activity Reinforces: Allowing students to participate in preferred activities (such as games, computer time, etc.) is a very powerful strategy.Tangible Reinforces: This category includes edibles (food), and non-edibles such as toys, balloons, stickers, and awards. These should be used with caution. Parents may have reason to object to certain reinforcement and toys can make other students envious. However, tangibles can be in the form of awards, certificates, displaying work, and letters sent home to parents commending the student's progress. These are powerfully motivating reinforces and for many students are absolutely necessary when first implementing a reinforcement plan.Token Reinforcement: involves awarding points or tokens for appropriate behavior. These rewards have little value in themselves but can be exchanged for something of value. Reinforcement should be delivered as promised (make sure you follow through).Reinforcement will be most powerful when delivered immediately. Do not give reinforcement because you feel sorry for a student or when it is generally undeserved. Whenever possible, pair tangible or external reinforcement with social reinforcement, make sure that social reinforces are not ambiguous (make sure the student knows exactly what they are being praised for) Reinforcement should be age appropriate. Gradually taper back the schedule of reinforcement such that tangible reinforces does not have to be provided each and every time a desirable behavior occurs. Reinforces should be periodically changed so that old reinforces do not become boring. Access to that reinforce must be limited (students will not engage in the desirable behavior if they can obtain that reinforce in other ways). Similarly, a reinforce losses its value when a student has constant access to it). Wendy K. Bradley, (2001), her study on, The Effects of Positive Reinforcement on Time Estimation
The effect of positive reinforcement on time estimation in children was measured. The participants were 10 fifth grade students and 18 eighth grade students. In which the Purdue Pegboard Test is used. One half of the participants received positive feedback and encouragement while the other half received no feedback at all. The researcher does feel that with more extensive testing, the results would be much different. The researcher believes that positive reinforcement would help considerably when children are performing school work or other related tasks. This would have significance for both teachers and parents who wish to make the learning experience a more positive one.
Many studies have been done in order to ascertain what may help children achieve more successfully in an educational setting. Positive reinforcement and verbal feedback are areas that have been investigated as ways to improve performance. The notion of whether or not a child can accurately predict how long certain activities take may can affect performance. It is helpful for a child to know how to budget time, and without accurate time estimation, this may not be very easy to accomplish.
This issue has important implications because it may serve as a tool for those in a teaching profession to structure a learning program. Certain variables could affect the time estimation in children and help them to better grasp how much time an activity takes. If these variables are known an implemented, then educational programs may benefit from this information. Education includes many aspects; in addition to learning textbook information and rote memorization, a child must also learn to properly maximize the information and time that he or she is given to perform a certain task.
Lady Lit and Trent Lorcher , (2008) Teacher Tip: Positive Reinforcements
This article addresses how students' problematic behavior through verbal warnings issued in a complimentary fashion. Students hear a lot of negatives during the school day: “No, don’t do that,” “No eating in class,” or "No sleeping." Students, especially teenagers, are sensitive individuals who do not want to be singled out in the classroom. Teenagers think they are grown; they resent being reprimanded; they want the freedom that adults enjoy. Keep this in mind when administering discipline in the classroom. Teachers who handle teenage misbehavior subtly and positively experience fewer problems.
The goal with positive reinforcement involves motivating students to behave properly because they want to, not because you're standing over them with a sledge hammer. Use Humor- Issue students a verbal warning, but do so in a complimentary fashion.
Another common problem many teachers experience is a student who wants to prop his head up on his arm and take a little nap during instruction. Again, approach the student and say, “[Student’s name,] I want to see those beautiful blue/green/brown eyes.” Most times, the student will open his eyes and pay attention. Not only did you gain the student’s attention, but you were likely greeted with a wide, beaming smile, having made the student feel good about his/her appearance. Positive reinforcements motivate and facilitate better relationships between teachers and students. By | Calmly ,( 2004 ) |
The Power of Positive Reinforcement, Amazon Verified Purchase. This is an exceptionally well-organized and clear book. Superficially, it might seem like "only" a suggestion to compliment others more often. However, what distinguishes it from self-help books that emphasize willpower and attitude is the reliance on the teachings of B.F.Skinner's radical behaviorism.
This is one of the best and few books on applying behaviorism to everyday living that I've aware of. You can read Skinner (e.g. "Science and Human Behavior" or his 3-part autobiography) to understand the scientific foundation of his approach and to get a few ideas how you can manage yourself better, but I have found it difficult to work out just how to apply the lessons of behaviorism in daily life. Advancements have been made in applications to such areas as autism and to education, but these require highly trained behavior analysts.
He identifies a number of rules that must hold to effectively positive reinforce others. And because it doesn't require too many rules, it seems quite manageable. I haven't tried it much yet, but I mean to start doing so soon. I hope to succeed because I'll have the scientific power of behaviorism, the laws of nature and the apparent wisdom of Daniels supporting and keeping it simple.
Local Literature and Study
Eric F. Mallonga, (2008), Child discipline
With the Prieto bill, however, there appears to be hope in changing cultural paradigms toward an improved humanity. As positive forms of parental nurturance and reinforcement are stressed over parental punishment and negation, then the enhancement of parenting strategies can further focus on constructive, creative, and rational forms of reasoned, logical explanations in finding solutions to problematic disciplinary situations rather than resorting to hateful, violent, expressions of bitterness and rage toward figures of authority. Children treated with positive nurturance will most surely grow into creative adults, who are anticipated to further positively contribute to communities to which they belong. Praise is a most important parenting tool. It's better than punishment any day because it has more consistent, predictable positive results without any significant negative side-effects. Punishment, on the other hand, sometimes works and sometimes doesn't and it almost always involves a heavy cost (which we'll examine in detail later)
Most importantly, kids love praise. They like to hear when they're on track, doing the right thing. They like to know you're pleased and proud. Your praise keeps them coming back for more -- which is why they behave so much better when you reinforce their behavior with praise. What you praise is what you get. Unfortunately, what you criticize is also what you get, so be careful. The rule is: whatever you attend to is what you get. If you reinforce good behavior (whatever is desirable in your eyes) by giving praise and other kinds of positive attention, children will deliver more good behavior.
Sanders, A. (2009), Positive Reinforcement
It states that, to properly manage a classroom, I feel it is important that teachers use some form of positive reinforcement techniques. As stated in the Positive Reinforcement article, “Positive reinforcement is anything that occurs after a behavior that increases the likelihood that the behavior will reoccur.” This reinforcement can be a supportive word, such as “good job on that group project,” or an extrinsic reward such as candy or extra recess time.
Joy Rojas, (2009) Reinforcement
Learning is apparently conducive in this center—bright and spacious floor area, cool interiors, and attractive incentives. Students who do well get anything, from tokens and toys, to gift certificates for their efforts.
“Of course, everybody likes it, but not everybody gets one,” says Bengzon with a smile. “At least it’s positive reinforcement.”
Henry S. Tenedero, (2009) Motivating children through their learning preferences
The article states that learning is critically influenced by learner motivation. All teachers want to have are motivated learners in their classrooms. Psychologists have identified two types of motivation: extrinsic and intrinsic. Extrinsic motivation results from using positive rewards to achieve a target behavior. Teachers can influence the students’ determination to succeed through their behavior and statements. What about intrinsic motivation? Parents and teachers should make use of encouraging statements that reflect an honest evaluation of learner performance.
They could do this by: Recognizing the child’s accomplishments; Attributing their achievement to internal rather than external factors. Providing feedback to them about the strategies they use, and instructions on how to improve them; Helping them set realistic goals; Refraining from grouping them according to their ability. Ability grouping gives the message that ability is valued more than effort.
Research suggests that competitive arrangements that encourage children to work alone to achieve high grades and rewards tend to give the message that what is valued is ability. Angelita Monjardin-Esdicul, (2009), Classroom and Learning
“Education is about opening doors for our children, and giving them hope and opportunities. It is more than filling a vessel with knowledge – it is to light a fire in our young”
The article gives some practices and procedures that allow teachers to teach and students to learn it is not discipline. That is to encourage and establish student self-control through a process of promoting positive student achievement and behavior Academic achievement. The key in preventing school violence is ultimately not in guards and cameras, but in students feeling cared for, competent, and valued (Jones & Jones 2004) leads to fewer classroom discipline problems.

Synthesis
From this study and literature presented both local and foreign result revealed significant relationship to the present study.
The study by logsdon, any type of reward or incentive you give your child that results in increasing the behavior you want your child to perform is positive reinforcement helps students learn behaviors necessary to be successful academically and socially. In comparison to the article of positive reinforcement explains that rewards only holds value if the students has completed or accomplished a goal or achievement . If rewards or positive feedback are given to a student without the student learning it, then the extrinsic reward will no be meaningful and the positive behavior will not continue.

Chapter 3
Research Methodology This chapter provides the plan of the research. It guided the researchers in conducting the entire study. The design helps the researcher in the formulation of the appropriate instrument and ensures a systematic gathering of the needed data. Specifically, it describes the steps to be followed rarely, research design, sources of data, data gathering procedure, respondents, research instrument and statistical treatment of data.
Research design In a study about the significant effect of the development of grade IV students the researcher used the descriptive method to obtain the relevant for the attainment of the objective of the study. This method is used to know who, what, when, where and how of the researcher. The descriptive survey method was design to gather information about present existing conditions. It is helpful in describing the nature of a situation, as it exist at the time of the study and to explore the causes of the natural phenomena. It involves collection of data in order to test hypothesis to answer question concerning the current status of the study. (Garcia, 2001)
Data gathering In gathering data the researchers talked and surveyed numbers of Itaas Elementary school, Muntinlupa City, and explained to them the purpose of this study to provide insight on the topic. The researcher gave the handouts survey questionnaires to the respondents. To supplement the information that was provided from the respondents. That helps the researchers to gather the needed information and to complete the study.
Respondents of the study The respondents of the study are the grade IV students of Itaas Elementary School, Muntinlupa City, with a population of 194 students; 95 girls and 99 boys. The researchers considered them as respondents to this research study because this population will be in good help in the course of the study as the researcher conducts the survey of effect of positive reinforcement.
Research Instrument
The primary research instrument the researcher used is the survey questionnaire. A questionnaire is defined as a list of planned written question related to particular topics, with space provided for indication response to each question intended for submission to a number of people (Good, 2000) According to Shaoo (1998), the instrument used to collect data was a researcher-made questionnaire. The questionnaire is a formal set of questions or statements, designed to gather the information from the respondents that will accomplish the goals of the researcher. This will provide information structure that allows responses to be analyzed and compared.

Statistical Instrument of Data The last part of this chapter usually describes the statistical treatment of data. The kind of statistical treatment depends upon the nature of the problem, specifically the specific problems, and the nature of the data gathered. This study made use of the percentage distribution, frequency method and weighted mean of responses to comprehensively illustrate the results and explain their meaning.
The following are the formula of the said statistical treatment: Percentage Distribution Formula- % F x 100 where: F – Frequency n n – No. of respondents % - Percentage Weighted Mean Formula: WM = Σf w where: f – frequency N w – weight N – Total no. of respondents

The researchers provided the scale for the interpretation of the results of this study and given weight for the corresponding average of respondents.
The table below presents the Likert Scale with their corresponding verbal interpretations.

Likert Scale | Verbal Interpretation | 5 | Strongly agree | 4 | Agree | 3 | Neutral | 2 | Disagree | 1 | Strongly disagree |

THE STUDY OF POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT AND ITS SIGNIFICANT EFFECT TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF SELECTED GRADE FOUR STUDENTS OF ITAAS ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, MUNTINLUPA CITY

A Thesis Proposal submitted to the Faculty of
College of Arts and Sciences
Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Muntinlupa

In Partial fulfillment
For the course
Research Method

Submitted by
Baful, Cherie D.
Loyola, Eriza V.
Menor, Swishelle O.…...

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...many organizations would also enrich the service provision framework and make its coveragebroader than 4G networks. * In mobile networks the location of the user as well as his identity, are part of several private information that should be independently protected. We should look for mechanisms that allow an un-coupled way of protecting any subset of the private components. For example, some applications might require the user to authenticate but not to reveal his location (e.g., identity-based services), other applications might require the user to reveal his location, but not his identity (e.g.,anonymous location-based services). * Rest of the Thesis work will be done within due time. Methodology Approach What steps will you take in the project? List the steps. There are three step for this Thesis: * Firstly analyze the basic Wireless network Infrustructure understanding the 1G,2G,3G, 4G Basic Structure. * Secondly Find out the Security threat for the 4G Wireless network. * Thirdly use different technique to solve the Security problem. References: [1] M. Rahnema, _Overview of the GSM system and protocol architecture,_ IEEE Communications Magazine, 1993. [2] 3GPP Technical Specification Group Services and System Aspects, _TS 23.060 General Packet Radio Services (GPRS): Service Description,_ Release 1999, Version 3.13.0, 2002. [3] 3GPP Technical Specification Group Services and System Aspects,......

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...two statements or reasons present the act of lying as the only way to maintain a relationship and avoid punishment. It might be true that lying can help people keep relationships in good shape and interact well with others but there are also other ways to achieve those objectives. Commitment, respect, and understanding among others characteristic are elements to create and keep good long-term relationships and healthy social interactions. Furthermore, lying to avoid punishment is as well only one way to solve problems and evade negative consequences. Wouldn’t be better to think objectively before we do or say something? I’m not sure but I believe Askhen’s thesis statement was “Lying is the answer to protect our privacy and also for success” If this is her thesis statement, I don’t frankly see a solid connection between her thesis statement and reasons or evidences provided. On the other hand, what I really like about Ashken’s presentation was her ability to put us in different situations by asking us intricate questions in which lying seems to be the only solution. Alternatively, on the other side of this in-class debate was Martha who believes that “lying is bad because it’s something that good people don’t do”. She suggests that telling lies frequently may become a habit and cause problems within your family and social lives. As it stands, this statement supports the idea that when something is done continuously it becomes a routine either positive or negative and that......

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...Undergraduate Research Projects Title: Thesis Adviser: Author: A Predictive Model of Attention in Viewing Selected Grocery Food Products Ms. Rosemary Seva Kathleen V. Garcia Kimberly L. Go Winnie V. Grindulo Date: Call Number: Abstract: Studies on visual attention have identified certain visual factors that attract consumer attention. Visual attention had been found to be related to instore visual factors such as shelf position, number of facings, and packaging design. However, despite their importance attracting consumer attention, no studies had been found to consider combined effects of these factors in consumer attention. As such, this study considered the combined effects shelf position, number of facings and packaging design with the objective of identifying the significant factors and of developing a predictive model of attention. The significant effects of in-store visual factors specifically number of facings, horizontal and vertical shelf positioning, the color, size, and material of, and the text and image on the packaging was used in the development of a conceptual model in predicting attention as measured by the frequency of fixation and the duration of fixation. In order to validate the developed model, an eye-tracking experiment was conducted. Using an eye-tracking device that records the frequency and duration of fixation, the subjects were asked to view a life-size picture of a shelf. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyse the data gathered from the...

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...Testing and maintaining the system -Test the information system and system maintenance. VI. Implementing and evaluating the system -Train users, analysts plans smooth conversations from old system to new system. BIBLIOGRAPHY Miriam, A. et.al. Employee Information System. Quezon City,2012,pp 31&5 http://aikodoll.org/ http://www.google.com.ph/search?biw=1024&bih=472&tbm=isch&source=univ&sa=X&ei=26jyVPq1Hqe5mAXku4LwAQ&ved=0CDkQ7Ak&dpr=1&q=system+architecture+for+payroll#imgdii=_ http://www.google.com.ph/?gfe_rd=cr&ei=e1bUVN2UG8mJ8Qfu5IAg&gws_rd=ssl#q=system+architecture++for+payroll http://free-thesis-programs.blogspot.com/ http://www.mediafire.com/download/ekejvi7wsat50im/Online+Payroll+System+Thesis+%5B+Source+Codes+%2B+Documentation+%5D.rar...

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...thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis......

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...Write a Thesis Statement What is a Thesis Statement? Almost all of us—even if we don’t do it consciously—look early in an essay for a one- or two-sentence condensation of the argument or analysis that is to follow. We refer to that condensation as a thesis statement. Why Should Your ILP/Research Project Contain a Problem/Thesis Statement? • to test your ideas by distilling them into a sentence or two • to better organize and develop your argument • to provide your reader with a “guide” to your argument In general, your thesis statement will accomplish these goals if you think of the thesis as the answer to the question your paper explores. How Can You Write a Good Thesis Statement? Here are some helpful hints to get you started. • How to Generate a Problem/Thesis Statement • How to Tell a Strong Thesis Statement from a Weak One [pic] How to Generate your Problem/Thesis Statement Your problem/thesis statement needs to answer a question about the issue you’d like to explore. Your job is to figure out what question you’d like to write about – this is your topic selection. A good thesis statement will usually include the following four attributes: • take on a subject upon which reasonable people could disagree • deal with a subject that can be adequately treated given the nature of the assignment • express one main idea • assert your conclusions about a subject Let’s see how to generate a thesis......

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...Nesbitt-Johnston Writing Center Hamilton College Clinton, NY 13323 INTRODUCTIONS AND THESIS STATEMENTS Introductions The introduction is a key paragraph for both readers and writers. First impressions matter. The reader will be more inclined to read a paper and consider a position if the initial paragraph is clear, organized, and engaging. For the writer, a carefully crafted first paragraph acts as a springboard, establishing the order and direction for the entire paper. The form and content of an introduction depend upon many factors, including the specifics of the assignment, the intended audience, the style of the discipline, and the expectations of your professor. In general, your introduction should • capture the reader’s attention • reflect the question raised by the assignment • provide essential context for your topic • define key terms Most importantly, your introduction should • convey the pattern of organization you will follow in the paper • build to the thesis sentence: a clear, concise statement of the specific position you will explore in your paper Outline first Outline your argument as fully as possible before starting the first draft. Outlining first helps you to see the shape of your argument, making writing the draft much easier. Start focused Avoid broad openers; start your argument right away. Do not open with empty filler such as “Since the beginning of time” or “For thousands of years, men, both good and evil.” Open with a......

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... According to the related article mentioned above, fingerprint scanning technology has been used in many fields as a means of security to confidential government records. Technology helps law enforces in the identification of employees. Local Literature The aim of general payroll system is to provide easier and faster way to monitor the movement of salary in the business. It is a proper way to get an exact salary of employee regarding their minimum income. From this documents of payroll the salary will be illustrate the name of employee, the rate, the deductions for their benefits, deduction from damages and cash advance, computing a gross and giving the amount of net income. According to John Aquilan made a comparable thesis entitled “Automation of time attendance System” in 2004, it stated that the automation of the time attendance records, time in and time out of every employee using barcode system. It tends to eliminate the manual recording system of time and attendance and also include salary computation of each employee based on the time and attendance reports. According to Mayor Jun Bernabe on the article Planet Biometrics, In August 2011 Parañaque City, Philippines has replaced its existing biometric machines with a new finger print biometric attendance registry system, which it says is more user-friendly and efficient. The city’s mayor, Jun Bernabe, says the new attendance machines will enable it to resolve the issues of long queues as well as......

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...Time Management and Test Preparation. The study is largely dependent on the honesty, sincerely, and integrity of the respondents. This study will not cover the graduating students, due to the f act that we have limited sources. Moreover 1st year and 2nd year Batasan Gen Ed. Students are only allowed to participate in the research. Definition of Terms Student Employment - The one who work for oneself. Part Time Job - The way of the student to earn and to provide their necessity. Work - Something that produces an output or being accomplished. Working Students – Student who work while studying. References http://www.slideshare.net/AngeAlcantara/a-thesis-asses http://www.merriam-webster.com/press-release/2009-word-of-the-year http://aikodoll.org/subcategory/factors-affecting-the-academic-performance-of-college-working-student-in-the-philippines/1...

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...Thesis CHAPTER 1 The Problem and its Background Introduction If you could improve performance, increase student morale an develop self esteem of a student, would you? According to B.F Skinner, behavior is a function of its consequences. The learner will repeat the desired behavior if positive reinforcement follows the behavior. Skinner said, “When someone behaves in a way we find reinforcing, we make him more likely to do so again by praising or commending him. We attest to the value of the person’s behavior by patting on the back, or saying good or right or giving him a token of our esteem such as prize, honor or award.” Guthrie assume that learning depends on action an organism must do, it is to learn. Once the student performed the required response, the teacher must present the student a reward, which will capture his or her attention that the student will eventually further improve his or her performance. For example, when students do exceptionally ell in class, he or she will earn medal or a star. Another, the student will be more motivated if his or her teacher will say “good job” or “very great answer” for every correct answer and good performance. The researcher believes that rewards have something to do with learning and we assume that motivation is important to the learner. A reward must be something desirable; without the desire, there can be no reward (Tria, 1998) Since the researchers have mentioned the concept of positive reinforcement......

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