Free Essay

Social Institution of America and Germany

In: Social Issues

Submitted By iliancorvenus28
Words 2470
Pages 10
Running head: America and Germany: Institution

America and Germany: Institution

America and Germany: Military Institutions War and Culture are intertwined with Politics as well as Religion. The reasons are because the Human Psyche governs these four things and such it is within the whims of those who have the powers or are have the power within the society or community to control it. It can be said that culture is equivalent of “any group of humans living or working together over time develops “habitual practices, default programs, hidden assumptions and unreflected cognitive frames” that inform their choices, or indeed they will have created “a repertoire or ‘tool kit’ of habits, skills, and styles from which people construct ‘strategies of action’.” (Lee 2011, pp.3) As such, war can result in a cultures ideology, socioeconomic background and religious beliefs. Most Wars have a main/central or focal point or theme as to why they are being fought, and it is the underlying cultures belief that governs the reason for said wars. (The Holy Wars due to Religion, the Civil War due to political beliefs of freedom and liberty, World War II due to religious and political propaganda). Americas Perception in regards to “Death’s Significance for the Civil war generation arose as well from its violation of prevailing assumptions about life’s proper end-about who should die, when and where, and under what circumstances.” (Faust 2008, pp. xxii) Before the war, dying was due to natural and normal circumstances. Rules of conduct for the dying was practiced (the Good Death), and focused around dying within the comfort of one’s home (a tradition centered on the Good Death), with family and kin assembled around the deceased to hear his/her last words. The deceased was buried deep enough so no animal can unearth, in a coffin so to shield him from direct contact with the dirt, and putting a marker/tombstone equaling a decent burial. “One of the striking indications of civilization and refinement among a people is the tenderness and care manifested by them towards their dead.”(Faust 2008, pp. 61) However, Civil War changed the views of Americans about rituals of death. Civilians and soldiers had practicality dictated over needs or wants. The war bringing brought about a change in the rituals of death. “Burying the dead after a Civil War battle seemed always to be an act of improvisation, one that called upon the particular resources of the moment and circumstances: available troops to be detailed, prisoners of war to be deployed, civilians enlisted.” (Faust 2008, pp.65) Mass graves created, dead soldiers piled up in trenches, ditches, and any available outlet. Proper burial rituals where not given since “the needs of the living increasingly trumped the dignity of the departed.” (Faust 2008, pp.70) However, from these atrocities also came hope in the keeping of the Good Death. Soldiers, chaplains, military nurses, and doctors conspired to provide the dying man and his family with as many elements of the conventional good death as possible, struggling even in the chaos of war to make possible for men-and their loved ones- to believe they had died well.” (Faust 2008, pp.11) These people eased and comforted the sick, invalid and dying. The dying held pictures and tokens from loved ones connecting them to one another. Letters, wills where made, and requests were asked by the dying to comrades, or hospital personnel to ensure that their families would receive said items. “Some soldiers enacted other rituals of respect for the dead: brief prayers either with or without the participation of a chaplain.” (Faust 2008, pp. 77) When possible, comrades at arms would bury their dead or even send the bodies back to their loved ones. Others wrote condolence letters depicting how the person died, what their good deeds where during the war and an affirmation that they died in a manner befitting the Good Death. Presently, these ideologies have dramatically changed. The war in Iraq has provided numerous examples of the power of the social situation in explaining the actions of our own military personnel. One of the most highly publicized incidents was the prisoner abuse scandal at Abu Ghraib. Using your knowledge of social psychology, explain how this incident could have occurred. In addition, provide your own perspective (based on social psychological principles) on whether or not the soldiers involved in the prisoner abuse cases should be held legally responsible for their actions. Be sure to support completely using theories from social psychology. In times of war, people are told what to do, when to do and how to do it. We are given a set of rules by which we follow in order to live day to day. These are the Law of Armed Conflict constituting the Geneva and Hague Conventions, The Uniform Code of Military Justice, and The Rules of Engagement. I believe that the perpetrators (the military and the civilian contractors) where all aware of their actions. They acted out of pure aggression and hatred. The government made excuses such as “a few bad apples”, or that the military member where just he MP defendants claim that they were following orders to soften up the prisoners as a prelude to interrogation. Acts of aggression and a sense of honor society is mainly pervasion during times of war. The Frustration-Aggression Theory is at play. These soldiers become frustrated with the war, and the country and the people that “elicit the motive to aggress and all the aggression is caused by frustration.”(Kassin, Fein, Markus 2011, pp. 454) The “inclination to aggress is deflected from the real target to a substitute.” (Kassin, Fein, Markus 2011, pp. 455) The aspect of war is its overwhelmingly masculine quality; war is an assertion of dominance over the other, perceived as weak, as cowardly, as a wimps. This can be attributed to a culture of honor, “which emphasizes honor and social status, particularly for males, and the role of aggression in protecting that honor. The term honor here can be used by in conjunction with the service for country- these people believed that what they were doing was servicing their country, where in fact they were being monsters and enjoying it. The excuses they used such as: they did not receive and instruction as to how to go about interrogation is complete and total bullshit. From the start of our military training regardless of what job we hold in the service, and before we reach our AOR (area of responsibility), we are given trainings, and rules of conduct governed by the Law of Armed Conflict , The UCMJ as guidance. These people committed monstrous acts and abuse of authority just because they could. These soldiers should have had more severe punishment/sentences that would have locked them up in jail for the rest of their natural live. Just because the people being tortured are not from the same culture, nation or religion should not mean that their lives and the tortures they experienced should be deemed less worthy. Chapter 7 in Lee’s Book talks about the atrocities done by the German Military, the culture and the political views that supported the near genocide of the Herrero and Namma Tribes of Colonial Southwest Germany. Ms. Isabel V. Hull does a stupendous description of Germany’s military culture that was also applied to it government regime. She notes some psychological and social aspects like colonial mentally, racism, socioeconomic inequality, aggression, and obedience. Colonial mentality springs from the “implicit personality theory- a network of assumptions that we hold about relationships among various types of people, traits, and behavior.” (Kassin, Fein, Markus 2011, pp. 129) This is evident in Germany’s treatment of its colonized citizens. In every war, nations/cultures that are conquered or lost are at the mercy of the victor. Hence when Germany colonized Southwest Africa, the mentality that was pervasive was the “superiority of Europeans over inferior Africans (a type of generalized race-thinking ubiquitous in the imperial situation and common to all colonial armies).” (Lee 2011, pp. 146) Racism is also part of this colonial mentality since the idea of Western superiority or superiority of the conquering nation is always present because it creates control over the conquered culture. Class, race, sex and gender play a role in our society. This creates certain images and ideas of how and what roles we play in a given culture and our society. Class is the hierarchal position that includes occupational position that creates a value that gains privilege and power. Race another type of class system based on skin color, nationality and religion creates a ranking system. “Frustration-aggression hypothesis-(1) Frustration-which is produced by interrupting a person’s progress towards an expected goal-will always elicit the motive to aggress; (2)All aggression is caused by frustration”(Kassin, Fein, Markus 2011, pp.455) with a displacement form. “Some of the reasons that Germany’s troops in SWA suffered and became frustrated were circumstantial, but there also were structural-institutional reasons that made unnecessary likely. One of the main reasons was inadequate provision….and medical treatment.” (Lee 2011, pp. 151) thus displacing their frustration on to their enemies, the prisoners of war, and the non-combatants by committing heinous acts against them. The “inclination to aggress is deflected from the real target to a substitute.” (Kassin, Fein, Markus 2011, pp. 455) Aggression is also apparent in “Vernichtung which had developed into a specific dogma that called for swift, offensive movement, if possible culminating in single concentric battle of Annihilation.” (Lee 2011, pp. 147) The aspect of war is its overwhelmingly masculine quality; war is an assertion of dominance over the other, perceived as weak, as cowardly, as a wimps. A “culture of honor, which emphasizes honor and social status, particularly for males, and the role of aggression in protecting that honor” (Kassin, Fein, Markus 2011, pp. 452) is also evident in regards to the military structure. Anything less of a total victory by which it was not won by total military force and considered weak. After the fall of Germany during the Great War and World War II, the German people as a whole started a new way of thinking deviating from the militaristic ways. Due to its losses and the atrocities that happened during the war per Hitler’s regime, Germany started to be more-open-minded and accepting, all the way learning from their Past. Hofstede created the a way to summarize the cultural dimension of current Germany.
Evaluation
In terms of Geert-Hofstede Cultural 5-Dimension Model, Germany in regards to Power Distance ranks at a score of 35 meaning that inequalities among people is minimized and that unorthodox ways in regards to decision making is accepted. “Germany tends to cluster with those countries that are less accepting of an unequal distribution of power, status, and material rewards in society.” (Gannon, 1994) Modern, advanced and very open minded concerning its society, shaped by high levels of gender equality, regional identity, plurality of lifestyle, tolerance and acceptance of Homosexuality. Rating at 67 in the Individualism, German society is individualistic in nature. They have a nuclear family since it can be “isolated geographically and psychologically from its kin.” (Georgas 2003). “Loyalty is based on personal preferences for people as well as a sense of duty and responsibility.” (Hofstede: What about Germany) Like America, Germany tends to focus on the “I” instead of the “We”, on the “I take care of myself and you take care of you notion.” .Even though Germany is individualistic, it also has some collectivist elements within the society. “Like musicians in the symphony, each must subordinate some individuality so that all of society may benefit.” (Gannon, 1994) Germans uphold and respect the rules and take responsibility in fulfilling their part in society.
Evaluations on the Masculinity/Femininity dimension tends to focus more on the Masculine side. Germans associate power with masculinity, strength, confidence and trust. Success oriented in regards to education and profession with the motto of winner takes all or may the best man win. Sense of pride comes from ones profession or from certain skillset. Competitiveness with a sprinkle of cooperation is highly supported in the German Culture. It is expected that one is able to contribute to the best of ones abilities while also contributing the the greater good of the community. “Assertiveness in business is permitted, but aggressiveness is considered bad form.” (Gannon, 1994) Germany is one of the countries that rank high in Uncertainty Avoidance. They rely on reason and logic that is infallible in creating standards and procedures implemented in case of circumstances. Since Germany has a decentralized Power Distance, the need to clearly establish and distribute responsibilities is essential. Uncertainty is reduced when the roles/ responsibilities is defined thru standardization and certificate measures. The Long Term-Orientation dimension, Germany ranks in 31, which is the equivalent of a Short-Term Oriented Society. This means that Germans have a deep respect and adherence to tradition and history. One has to keep up a certain appearance as not to become a social pariah. With this in mind, certain aspects like socio economic status and class is a basis for worth or value within the community.

Synthesis Overall Germany and the United States in regards the 5 cultural dimensions have almost the same results except for the Uncertainty Avoidance wherein the United States are more relaxed and people tend to see the future as something that is uncertain and should not be over-planned too much. The “live everyday like it is your last” motto is very pervasive within the country. The summary of Hofstedes’ Cultural dimension can be seen on the chart for Germany and the United States. ASPECT | GERMANY | UNITED STATES | POWER DISTANCE | INEQUALITIES AMONG PEOPLE SHOULD BE MINIMIZED. UNIQUENESS IS ACCEPTED | LIBERTY AND JUSTICE FOR ALL | INDIVIDUALISM | INDIVIDUALISTIC-BEING SELF RELIANT | INDIVIDUALISTIC SOCIETY-SELF RELIANT AND TO LOOK AFTER ONESELF AND IMMEDIATE FAMILY. | MASCULINITY/FEMININITY | MASCULINE- SUCCESS ORIENTED AND DRIVEN.”WINNER TAKES ALL ATTITUDE” | MASCULINE-”LIVE IN ORDER TO WORK”.MAY THE BEST MAN WIN | UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE | HIGH UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE. USE OF REASON AND LOGIC IS INFALIABLE | UNCERTAINTY ACCEPTANCE-COME WHAT MAY. | LONG TERM ORIENTATION | SHORT TERM ORIENTATION- RESPECT FOR TRADITION AND HISTORY | SHORT TERM ORIENTATION-RESPECT AND UPHOLD TRADITIONAL VALUES |

Reference: Faust, D.G., (2008). This Republic of Suffering, Death and the American Civil War. (pp.xxii-77) New York, NY: Vintage Civil War Library Kassin, S., Fein, S. & Markus, H. R. (2011). Social Psychology, (8th Ed, pp. 129-455). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Lee, W. E. (2011). Warfare and Culture in World History (Pages 3-151). New York: New York University Press. Gannon M. J., Understanding Global Cultures: Metaphorical Journeys Through 17 Countries, 1994 Hofstede: What about Germany- http://geert-hofstede.com/germany.html…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Religion as a Social Institution

...University Individual Project # 1 Religion as a Social Institution Donald Ricker Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for SOC 205 Introduction to Sociology By Ray Cordero Colorado Springs, Colorado November 2010 Abstract Religion is just one of the many functions that make up social institutions. Understanding the definition of a social institution can be key to understanding human behavior. Recognizing religion’s overall function within this social institution can also help us create a better society. I chose to write about religion as a social institution because it reflects an area that requires an individual to take more of a “leap of faith” in my opinion. In other words, this belief requires a person to rely on things that may not be seen or something you can touch or feel. To explain my view of religion as a social institution I will give you a definition of social institutions and then I will cover its function from the religious standpoint. First, let me give you some definitions. Webster’s New World College Dictionary tells us that an institution is an “organization, society, or corporation, having a public character, as a bank, church, bank, hospital, etc.” Our course reference book further defines a social institution as “organized patterns of beliefs and behavior centered on basic social needs” (Sociology 113). Finally, another definition would be that a social institution is a group of people who follow......

Words: 850 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Social Institution

...To understand the meaning of social institution as it relates to organized crime is to first gain an understanding of organized crime. Organized crime is a group of people involved in illegal activities. Social institution as it relates to organized crime is a group of people seeking their own financial or status gain. Social institutions are found in many societies made up by individuals consisting of leaders and followers in economic, socialization, and formal social control functions. The function of economics is a system of community activity to produce, distribute, and consume goods and services that make the existence of organized crime thrive. The communities’ involvement brings organized crime and economic institutions together (Lyman & Potter, 2007). When society needs social institutions involved with illegal activity, they help in the production as well as the distribution to meet those needs (Sociology, 2011). Socialization function is also a role in organized crime where community socialization accepts legal or illegal behavior (Lyman & Potter, 2007). These social institutions strengthen the social interaction patterns with families as well as other social groups within a community (Lyman & Potter, 2007). There are two types of social institutions involved with organized crime; one is the patron-client relationship where the leader is family oriented basing their normal living within society (Lyman & Potter, 2007). Next is the bureaucratic model,......

Words: 756 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Social Institutions

...SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS Functionalism perspective focuses on how parts of society are functional and the connection between parts of society. A strength of the functionalist perspective is to work together to encourage stability. Another strength states that society is organized and systematic. It says that the basic needs have to be met in order for society to survive. One weakness is it puts a similarity between organism and society. Another weakness is it cannot describe social transformation. It also exaggerates the agreement that occur in society. Symbolic interactionism perspective focuses on face-to-face interaction and the use of symbols. A strength that exists in Symbolic Interactionism perspective is it takes in to account the choices individuals make and how they behave. Another strength is it is more valuable to individuals. It also gives understanding into small scale interaction. A weakness of symbolic interactionism perspective is the symbols can be misunderstood. Another weakness is it doesn’t describe social order and how it comes about. Conflict perspective focuses on how the best control the poor and the weak and the race for unusual resources. A strength in a conflict perspective is the importance of power and its role in interaction. Another strength is it speaks on how resources are restricted and this truth influences the relationship between people. A weakness is that not all interactions are analyzed in terms of conflicting interest and power......

Words: 303 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Family as a Social Institution

...Family as a Social Institution SOC101 By Joshua Simpson If a country is to be corruption free and become a nation of beautiful minds, I strongly feel there are three key societal members who can make a difference. They are the father, the mother, and the teacher. (Abdul Kalam) For this paper I will be explaining how the American family is a social institution and the struggles that come along with it. I will be focusing on the American family and its traditions and also how divorce impacts the family and community. The American family can limit social contact but I can also flourish through the family. The modern American family as a social institution can be taken in many different ways. In some the typical American family known as nuclear (mother, father, and kids) is declining. The other type of family is extended or encompassing other relatives. These families are also called traditional families because these families are what Americans have come accustomed to. Thus because families are growing and allowing extended family in. another reason why they are declining because families are becoming one parent and the children or spit parents and the children live with extended family. Many people do not agree with this conclusion because there have not been any studies to show this but from observation and a look around your own community I sure you can find one of these untraditional families. There are many factors that contribute to families breaking up and......

Words: 828 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Social Institutions

...Social Institutions Kelly Beam Criminal Organization Week 3 Thomas Borton A social institution is the area or group where a person lives or grows up. Getting an education creates a social institution because school helps to forming variable for the students who attend. The experience and knowledge a person receives in school, the environment a person grows up around helps them make the choices they make in life and develops what kind of person they become as an adult. Social Institutions relate to organized crime as being the theory we are all a product of the environment we grow up in. Most feel what we are exposed to within any kind of social group for any length of time we will start to adopt many of the ways and characteristics of that group. It seems to become our way of life or survival mode so to speak. It becomes much easier and appealing to want to be a part of a group that maybe a family member has been or someone else close to a person is or was a part of. Most people tend to stick to what they know, which in some cases involves organized crime as a result of a social institution. Gangs, mobs and any other type of organized crime group can be considered a social institution that people end up participating in because that’s what their environment consists of or did consist of most of their life. Many theories are applicable to organized crime and why criminal behavior exists and continues to occur. All of these theories involve the influences that social......

Words: 825 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Social Institution

...Social Institution A social institution is a group that someone lives and grows up in. These institutions or groups have a goal or task to complete. For example, a school is an educational social institution in which either children or adults go to learn a way of life. Social institutions are based on structures of relationships, functions, roles, and obligations. People who live their lives with the concept of right and wrong have positive values. People who do not consider these values are known to be antisocial. Social institutions that people learn their socialization from are religion, education, economic, and political. Social institution recognizes a community for social activity rather than legal boundaries. Second, the access points to the social activity are necessary for everyday living. These are very important roles if people want to be accepted in society (Lyman, 2007). Social Theories Theories are an underlying fact of certain observed phenomena that has been approved to some degree. The alien conspiracy theory blames outside people and outside influences on organized crime. The alien conspiracy supposes to be a fact that organized crime mafia gained attention during the 1860s in Sicily and that the Sicilians are responsible for the organized crime (Lyman, 2007). The alien theory states individuals involved with organized crime in Sicily and Italy had produced criminal organizations known as the Sicilian Mafia or Costra Nostra. These individuals......

Words: 269 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Women’s Social Mobility in the United States of America

...Women’s Social Mobility in the United States of America We live in a world full of obstacles where it’s said that the one who is born poor will remain poor. Like many other country in the world the United States of America is also struggling with the difficulties regarding social mobility. The American dream is that the poorest suburban person can be a rich person too and America is the home and land of unlimited possibilities. The main idea is that if you work hard enough you can make it to the top. Is it true for everyone? Can women make it to the top? But before I start my essay on Women’s Social Mobility in the United States of America let me clarity certain definitions. The concept of social mobility has two main meanings: a) in the narrow sense, represents the moving in a stratification system, b) broadly refers to the space movement (territorial mobility) and / or change of employment (or mobility fluctuation labor). Studies (theoretical and empirical) say that social mobility can be placed in three categories: - those using a hierarchy criteria, tracking movements between strictly hierarchical layers. It’s the American tradition, which uses the social status as a hierarchical criteria. - those who use as a classification criteria exclusively the individual’s occupation, this leading to the establishment of a social space consisting some number of socio-professional categories: tradition - those using as a criteria social classes and social strata. Here fall......

Words: 2541 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Impact of Social Institution on People

...Impact of Societal Social Institutions on People These embody all the ideas and beliefs of members of the society about how they think their lives should be organized. Dominant ideas and beliefs are those usually of the ruling class or the rich and powerful and tend to be the ones people find legitimate. Minority and weaker beliefs are also apart of the social institution but are not felt to be legitimate by the majority of the society and so may be suppressed and alienated. These ideas are normally in competition with one another for supremacy. So how can ideas be the building block of an entire society. Each institution becomes tangible through social organizations. So religious beliefs of the Christian are made tangible through the church. The ideas and beliefs forming the institution become concrete in the society through social organisations which reflect how these ideas are held. In each institution there are values (ideas on how something should be ranked in society), norms (yardsticks and standards that have evolved on how we should act), statuses (assigned positions or locations), and roles (expectations of behaviour). They are then the fundamental building blocks of society and vary over time and are based on the ideals which the people of the society have on accomplishing the tasks of living together collectively The Family Nancie Solien defines the family as "group of people bound by that complex set of relationships known as kinship ties“. It is the basic unit......

Words: 4039 - Pages: 17

Free Essay

Compare and Contrast Germany and America

...Compare and Contrast Germany and America Europeans and Americans have much more in common than most people think, making adjustments to life in a new country easier. Many customs are similar to practices in the United States. Germans have their own way of being German. Germany is a relatively small and densely populated country. Unlike the United States, which is a large, densely populated country. The greatest shock to Americans is the speed at which Germans drive. The roads and freeways are quite narrow. Speed limits in cities are strictly enforced, but on much of the Autobahn there is no limit on how fast drivers can go. Although it is against the law, impatient Germans may also tailgate at high speeds and/or flash their headlights when they want to pass your vehicle. If you are driving for the first time in Germany, keep right. Left lanes are for passing only. Unlike when you are driving in America; Americans tend to travel in the lane that is meant for passing and the faster drivers. Americans tend to think “ I am going the speed limit, so I am going to stay in the left lane”, the Germany way of thinking is that if you are not passing anyone or if you are going too slow, your car needs to be in the right hand lane. Unlike in the United States, train travel is a German way of life. You can get on at train at any bahnhof (train station) and travel to any destination in Europe you would like. The Germans use the train as their main mean of travel due to......

Words: 1642 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Social Institutions

...Social Institutions Arbre Flores SOC/100 Mar 18, 2016 Dr Lamb Social Institutions Social institutions effect all human beings across the globe. These institutions prepare, instill, and teach us some of the norms, morals, and skills needed for the world today. Social institutions are just that; they are standardized patterns or norms of society organized around the preservation of a basic societal value. Some institutions include family, education, and religion. These institutions are keen to development from child to adult, and they also assist in maintaining society. All social institutions are important, but I consider education to be one that stands out. Education advances us though knowledge, it helps prevent inequities, breaks down boundaries of ignorance and fear, and helps us avoid repeated historical mistakes. With education being such a vital institution it’s important that all humans receive an equal opportunity to learn. As seen in the Unbreakable video feminist theory still exist today. In many countries overseas women are still unable to obtain any benefits from educational institutions based on societies standards in that area. Malala addresses these issues head on, as a 15yr old girl she seeks the need for change and equal opportunity. During her quest to achieve educational benefits one of her biggest obstacles is how women are view in her country. Women in her country are labeled and not viewed as equal. There is no need to......

Words: 858 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Social Institutions on Crime

...crime has plagued practically all levels of Philippine society and their occurrences have been largely attributed to weak and useless system that characterized the government, especially those mechanisms within it that are meant to address the crime problem. The Government its function is to make laws, implement the law and execute it. And also provide for the welfare of the members of the society. Like the Government, Religion would also emphasize the role played by religious institution in providing social control, societal norms, and other things that are important for a society. Crimes in religious institution are against to the teachings of their own belief. Anything we do that is against to the teachings of our own religion are considered as immoral and not morally good. In Roman Catholic Religion they follow rules, the 10 commandments, they set norms so that peace and order is attained. The function of Educational Institution is to transmit culture to educate us, teach us. This institution can prevent crimes when one person is educated....

Words: 324 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Social Institutions

...Influence of Social Institutions: Family, Religion and Education Elizabeth Bouer SOC/100 May 30, 2016 Dr. Karly Way Schauwecker The Influence of Social Institutions: Family, Religion and Education Early philosopher and originator of Functionalism theory, Herbert Spence (1820-1903), compared parallels between the function of the human anatomy and society. “He argued that just as the various organs of the body work together to keep the body functioning, the various parts of society work together to keep society functioning” (OpenStax CNX, 2015, p.15 ). Just as the body has organs that help it to exist and thrive, society also has key components which attribute to its overall success. These essential parts of the successful and fluid existence of a society are referred to as social institutions. Social institutions are structures of principles or conducts, focused on achieving social needs. Six critically significant, outlines of social institutions are: government, education, family, healthcare, religion and the economy (CNX, 2015). Government has its benefits, in that it helps to structure, regulate and organize a society. Healthcare is an essential component, not only for the continuity of existence, but as well as for continuance of reaching full/highest human potential. The economy (more specifically its success), is a critical element for a society’s ability to endure, succeed and grow. However, for many, out of the six institutions, the......

Words: 1850 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Politicals Institutions in the United Kingdom and the United States of America

...Summary : I. The United Kingdom 1. The Make-Up of the UK 2. Constitutional Monarchy and Parliamentary Democracy 3. The Electoral System and Political Parties in the UK 4. The Current Political Situation 5. Devolved Administration in the UK II. The United States of America 1. The Make-Up of the USA 2. The Federal and Constitutional Republic of the USA 3. Political Parties in the USA 4. The Current Political Situation in the USA I. The United Kingdom 1. The Make-Up of the UK The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a constitutional monarchy and unitary state. It is made up of four individual countries, which are England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. It is governed by a parliamentary system and its seat of government is in London. There are also three devolved powers outside of the capital, located in Belfast, Cardiff and Edinburgh (the three capital cities of Ireland, Wales and Scotland respectively). There are also a number of islands that are constitutionally tied to the United Kingdom constitution, but that are not part of the UK. They are the bailiwicks (headed by a bailiff, appointed by the crown to administer) of Jersey and Guernsey (to the south of the UK) and also the Isle of Man, which is off the north-east coast of the British mainland. However, it is true to say that the majority of British might even get confused as to the difference between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and the British......

Words: 5493 - Pages: 22

Free Essay

Social Vices in Higher Institutions in Nigeria

...Chapter one 1.0 Introduction Just a casual look at Nigerian universities these days will suffice to realise that so many social vices have become the order of the day. Chief among these are the twin evils of cultism and indecent dressing. Interestingly, these vices are commoner among the males and females respectively. What probably began as pacification to desires for companionship, protection and security; an innocent imitation of westerners has grown to bedevil sanity and progress on our university today. In this paper, cultism, indecent dressing and some other related social vices will be dealt with in light of their causes, consequences and possible remedial steps. 1.1 Definition of Basic Terms * Social vices * Cultism * Secret cult * Secret societies * Indecent dressing Social vices: Social vices are forms of evil, wicked and criminal actions or behaviours in the society. These are social problems and have been thought of as social situations that a large number of observers feel are inappropriate and need remedying. Social vices are those acts and conditions that violate societal norms and values. Cultism: The Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary defined cult as a small group of people who have extreme religious beliefs and who are not part of any established religion. Secret Cult: Ogunade (2002) defined a secret cult as an enclosed organized association or group devoted to the same cause. It is an enclosed group having an......

Words: 4392 - Pages: 18

Free Essay

Social Institutions

...Criminal organizations have been in America for a very long time, in order to get a clear understanding on how criminals think you have to take a closer look on how more legal organizations operate. One way to look at criminal organizations would be to compare them to social institutions. A social institution on defined as a group of people who get together with a common purpose. Some social organizations are Lions club, Veterans of foreign wars, Shiners, and even the Boy Scouts. A criminal organizations is also a group of people that get together with a common purpose, this purpose would be committing crime. Both Social Institutions and criminal organizations are managed by one person who makes all the decisions. The big difference between the two is that social institutions are legal in nature with criminal organizations or illegal. Organized crime is a business like any other legal business. They both have structure and the general purpose is the same, to make money. A criminal organizations in general makes moneys with little to no overhead because they do not buys their product and resale it. Criminal organizations steal most of their product. A legal business produces or purchases their goods for resale. This is one of the major differences between social institutions and criminal organizations. There is evidence showing that criminal organizations so a patterns of networking to grow their business, A partnership, or a patron-client relationship (Lyman, 2007). Once......

Words: 337 - Pages: 2