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Replace this file with prentcsmacro.sty for your meeting, or with entcsmacro.sty for your meeting. Both can be found at the ENTCS Macro Home Page.

An Example Paper
My Name 1,2
My Department My University My City, My Country

My Co-author 3
My Co-author’s Department My Co-author’s University My Co-author’s City, My Co-author’s Country

Abstract This is a short example to show the basics of using the ENTCS style macro files. Ample examples of how files should look may be found among the published volumes of the series at the ENTCS Home Page Key words: Please list keywords from your paper here, separated by commas.



This short note provides a guide to using the ENTCS macro package for preparing papers for publication in your conference Proceedings. The Proceedings may be printed and hard copies distributed to participants at the meeting; this is an option to Conference Organizers may choose to exercise. The Proceedings also will be par of a volume in the series Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science (ENTCS), which is published under the auspices of Elsevier Science B. V., the publishers of Theoretical Computer Science. It’s home page is The ENTCS macro package consists of two files: entcs.cls, the basic style file, and
1 2 3

Thanks to everyone who should be thanked Email: myuserid@mydept.myinst.myedu Email: couserid@codept.coinst.coedu

c 2003 Published by Elsevier Science B. V.

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entcsmacro.sty, a macro file containing the definitions of some of the theoremlike environments and a few other tidbits. The formatting these style files impose should not be altered – the reason for using them is to attain a uniform format for all papers in the Proceedings of which your paper is a part. Additional macro files can be added using \usepackage{...}. The file entcsmacro.sty must be included in the list, as is done at the start of the source file for this paper. A The ENTCS package requires a relatively up-to-date L TEX system in order to be successfully used. This is reflected in two other packages that are called by entcs.cls, which must be available on your machine. These are:

The hyperref package. This package allows the use of hyperlinks in files A prepared using L TEX2e, one of the main features of Adobe’s Acrobat c Reader software. Be sure that you have at least version 6.69d of this package.

The ifpdf package. This is used by hyperref to differentiate between the A A use of pdfL TEX and L TEX2e, followed by dvips and then ps2pdf. A The file instraut.dvi contains information about the use of L TEXto prepare files for online publication by Elsevier. This file refers to the older version A of L TEX that is no longer suppported, and that is inadequate for preparing .pdf files for online publication. Reading this file should answer most of the A basic questions about L TEX that might arise.



A The biggest difference between a “usual” L TEX style such as article.sty and the ENTCS package is that the ENTCS macro package requires the title, author’s name or names, abstract, keywords and “thanks” all to be included within the frontmatter environment. At the beginning of the source file for this paper, you’ll notice this. Also, you’ll notice that the usual \maketitle is absent; it no longer is needed. The ENTCS style package automatically generates the title, author’s name and address, and related material at the beginning of the paper. Note also that hyperref has been disabled in this part of the entcs.cls file, so references to footnotes aren’t linked to the appropriate A footenotes or addresses. This is an old problem with L TEX, involving the fact that the references within the frontmatter aren’t passed cleanly to the linking software. For those who have used the ENTCS package before, the one new thing to note is the inclusion of Keywords; these are now required by Elsevier – they’re also required by ACM’s Computing Reviews which reviews ENTCS publications. The ENTCS macro package provides two alternatives to listing authors names and addresses. These are described in detail in the file instraut.dvi.


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Basically, listing each author and his or her address in turn, is the simplest method. But, if there are several authors and two or more share the same address (but not all authors are at this address), then the method of listing authors first, and then the addresses, and of referencing addresses to authors should be used. Also, notice that acknowledgment of support (the contents of \thanks) should be done by a separate listing of \thanks[NSF]{To the NSF} with the optional argument – [NSF] – being used for \thanksref which is attached to those authors acknowledging such support. It is important that the \thanks not be included within the scope of \author{} or of \title{}, but it must be within the scope of the environment frontmatter. More details about added terms such as \collab can be found in inst.dvi, if they are needed. Also, notice that the command \lastname{My Lastname} has been included before the frontmatter begins. This command should contain the last names of the authors of the paper. If there are no more than three authors, then they should be listed with the word “and” between the last two; if more than three authors collaborated on the paper, then the first author only should be listed, together with \emph{et al}. This command creates the headline for each page after page 1. Finally, please be sure to include an abstract for your paper.


Sectioning and Environments

Since ENTCS is published through the auspices of Elsevier Science B. V., their style files have been used to create the ENTCS macro package. Here’s a proof that this package is not much different than most of the ones one encounters: Definition 3.1 A file is derived from another if it is obtained with only a few modifications from the original file. Theorem 3.2 The file entcs.cls is derived from elsart.sty. Proof. This is clear from the similarity of the output to the output from Elsevier’s style files. 2 If one wants to start a proof with a descriptive word, such as “sketch”, then one can use the \begin{proof*}...\end{proof*} environment, as in Proof (Sketch) This can be derived from simple observations. 2

The main differences between the file entcs.cls and the elsartr.cls file used by Elsevier are the more precise format we use – Elsevier’s generic files are meant for preliminary editing, and more precise formatting is imposed using a macro file designed for the specific Elsevier journal in which the paper will eventually appear. The entcs.cls and entcsmacro.sty files format papers 3

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uniformly so that they all are easily recognizable as being from the series Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science. A All of the usual features of L TEX are available with these style files – it is only the formatting that has been rigorously defined. Thus, one has available the sectioning commands \section,\subsection, \paragraph and \subparagraph. The numbering scheme used is one under which Theorem 1.2.3 is the third numbered item in second subsection of the first section of the paper. In order to facilitate cross-references, all of the named environments given below are numbered, and all use the same number scheme. The file entcsmacro.sty contains additional information that is needed to typeset a paper. It also has the definitions of the AMS euler and blackboard bold fonts builtin. If you want to use symbols for the natural numbers, the reals, etc., then we prefer that you use the blackboard bold fonts, and not plain bold fonts. This is accomplished by using the \mathbb font, as in N or R. The names of theorem-like environments are provided in entcsmacro.sty. With the exception of the environment Algorithm, the names of all of these are full name, rather than a shortened version. The environments provided and their names are
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

\begin{theorem} ... \end{theorem} for Theorems, \begin{lemma} ... \end{lemma} for Lemmas, \begin{corollary} ... \end{corollary} for Corollaries, \begin{proposition} ... \end{proposition} for Propositions, \begin{criterion} ... \end{criterion} for Criteria, \begin{alg} ... \end{alg} for Algorithms, \begin{definition} ... \end{definition} for Definitions, \begin{conjecture} ... \end{conjecture} for Conjectures, \begin{example} ... \end{example} for Examples, \begin{problem} ... \end{problem} for Problems, \begin{remark} ... \end{remark} for Remarks, \begin{note} ... \end{note} for Notes, \begin{claim} ... \end{claim} for Claims, \begin{summary} ... \end{summary} for Summary, \begin{case} ... \end{case} for Cases, and \begin{ack} ... \end{ack} for Acknowledgements. For example,


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Algorithm 1 Step 1: Write the paper Step 2: Format it with the ENTCS macro package Step 3: Ship the whole thing to the Guest Editors


References and Cross-references

A All the cross-referencing facilities of L TEX are supported, so one can use \ref{} and \cite{} for cross-references within the paper and for references to bibliographic items. As is done in this note, the References section 6 can be composed with \begin{thebibliography}...\end{thebibliography}. Alternatively, BibTEX can be used to compile the bibliography. Whichever one is used, the references are to be numbered consecutively, rather than by author-defined acronyms. Of course you can use your own acronyms for easy reference to each of the items in the bibliography, as has been done with the listing for this short note. However, note that the references should not be started with a new \section command. The package hyperref is automatically loaded by entcs.cls, and this makes all the cross-references within the document “active” when the pdf file of the paper is viewed with Adobe’s Acrobat c Reader. The format for including a link is simple: simply insert \href{URL} {text} where URL is the URL to which you want the link to point, and text is the text you want to be highlighted, which when clicked upon will bring up the desired web page.

4.1 Particulars about .pdf files We now require that .pdf files be provided for publication online. A .pdf file is viewable by Adobe’s Acrobat c viewer, which can be configured to load automatically within a browser. Viewing a properly formatted .pdf file with Acrobat c allows the cross-references and links to URLs to be active. In fact, Elsevier utilizes .pdf files in order to take better advantage of the web’s capabilities. But one point we want to emphasize is that you should be sure to use Type A 1 fonts when you typeset your L TEX source file. These fonts are scalable, meaning that they carry information that allows the devise viewing the final output to scale the fonts to suit the viewer being used – from an onscreen viewer such as Adobe’s Acrobat c Reader, to printing the file on a printer. You can tell if you have used the right fonts by viewing the final output on your machine. It the fonts look grainy, then you have not used Type 1 fonts. They can be located at the CTAN archive – they are public domain fonts, and don’t cost anything to add them to your system. Assuming you have Type 1 fonts available, then there are there methods for producing .pdf files. 5

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Using dvips and ps2pdf We list this option first since it appears to be the most reliable and the easiest to use, especially if you include embedded PostScript graphics (.eps A files) in your source file. Simply run L TEX2e on your source file, then apply dvips to produce a PostScript file, and finally apply ps2pdf to obtain a .pdf file. The DVIPDFM utility Another easy method for producing acceptable .pdf files is via the utility dvipdfm. This utility is included in distributions of MikTEX, which runs on Windows machines, but it probably needs to be added to your teTEX A distribution, if you are running L TEX on a UNIX machine. The utility and precise information about installing it on your system can be found at the web page In essence, this utility converts a .dvi file into a .pdf file. So, one can first prepare the .dvi file A using L TEX, and then apply the utility dvipdfm to produce the needed .pdf 4 file. This utility makes inclusion of graphics particularly simple – those that A are included in the L TEX source file are simply converted to the .pdf format. As we note below, things are not so simple with the second alternative, which A is to use pdfL TEX.
A pdfL TEX An alternative to the first possibilities to produce .pdf files is to process A the source file with pdfL TEX. This format is available from the standard A CTAN sites It appears that pdfL TEX and hyperref A have some problems when used together. It is necessary to use pdfL TEX version 14d or later in order to minimize these issues. If your system has an earlier version (most teTEX distributions have version 13d), then you A can update your system by retrieving the latest version of pdfL TEX from . Even if the A recent versions are used, pdfL TEX has the same dealing with references emA bedded with the frontmatter section described above for L TEX. A But there is one aspect of pdfL TEX that creates problems. Many authors 5 include EPS files within their papers. While this is fairly straightforward A with L TEX, there are a couple of points to note when attempting this with A pdfL TEX. A To include a PostScript image in a .pdf file produced with pdfL TEX, you first have to convert the image to a .pdf file, and then it can be included using the same command sequence as above. The conversion can be

Beware! The utility dvipdf does not produce acceptable .pdf files, and should not be used. Only dvipdfm should be used to produce .pdf files. 5 EPS stands for embedded PostScript, which affords a mechanism for including preA prepared PostScript files within a L TEX document.



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accomplished most easily using Ghostscript; you can simply view the file in Ghostview and then print the image to a .pdf file using the pdfwriter option within Ghostview. The result for a standard chess board that is part of the Ghostview distribution is the following image:

A Here as well is a copy of a color image. While pdfL TEX can handle image files A in other formats, L TEX can only handle .eps images reliably.

It also should be noted that we have included two separate source files for A A this example file – one for L TEX and one for pdfL TEX – because we want 7

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to illustrate how to insert graphics images into the file. If your paper does not include such images, then the same source file can be formatted by either A A L TEX orf by pdfL TEX. Using ENTCS Macros with Mac OS X Of course, if your file doesn’t require .eps or other PostScript files, then you can create the required .pdf file using any of the standard TEX implementations for the Macintosh. If you need to include PostScript files, and if you are using TEXShop, then you can specify to use dvips and ghostview in processing your file, and then you can apply ps2pdf to create the needed .pdf file. Alternatibely, the Mac OS X operating system is based on UNIX, so it supports the use of teTEX as described above.



The ENTCS macro package is relatively easy to use and provides a uniform layout for all the papers that appear in ENTCS. Problem 5.1 Finish your paper and get it to your Program Chairman on time! When you have finished preparing your paper, send a copy of the source file, together with any macro files that are needed to your Program Chairman. If the files are extensive, you can place copies in the pub/incoming sub-directory of the ftp directory on the machine indicated by your Program Chairman using anonymous ftp. If you do this, please send me email to alert me that the file(s) are here. Assigning Volume / Issue Numbers One additional point worth mentioning is that ENTCS is moving to ScienceDirect, Elsevier’s main platform for publishing electronic series, Because ScienceDirect must publish entire volumes at the same time, we have changed the procedure for preparing final versions so that volume numbers will not be assigned until the final versions are ready. Guest Editors will now have to receive the final version of all papers in their Proceedings before a volume and issue number will be assigned for the Proceedings. Even with the move to ScienceDirect, the reference scheme already used for publications in ENTCS – http://www.elsevier/nl/locate/entcs/ NNnn.html remains the valid way to cite papers published in ENTCS, where NN denotes the number of the volume, and nn denotes the issue number. Publications consisting of an entire volume should use 1 as the issue number. Copyright Transfer Forms One result of the move to ScienceDirect is that the corresponding author of each paper published in ENTCS must submit a signed Copyright Transfer 8

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Form to Elsevier in order for their paper to be published. A copy of this form will be sent to each author by the Guest Editors of each volume. Details about this agreement specifying the rights of the authors and the rights of Elsevier are available at Elsevier’s Author Gateway. Publication of Final Versions Because ScienceDirect cannot easily accommodate changes to published material, the Proceedings in its entirety must be ready before it can be published. This is one reason why the volume and issue number is not assigned until the final versions of all papers have been sent to the Guest Editors for final processing.


Bibliographical references

ENTCS employs the plain style of bibliographic references in which references are listed in alphabetical order, according the the first author’s last name, and are sequentially numbered. Please utilize this style. We have a BibTEX style file, for those who wish to use it. It is the file entcs.bst which is included in this package. The basic rules we have employed are the following:

Authors’ names should be listed in alphabetical order, with the first author’s last name being the first listing, followed by the author’s initials or first name, and with the other authors names listed as first name, last name. Titles of articles in journals should be in emphasized type. Titles of books, monographs, etc. should be in quotations. Journal names should be in plain roman type. Journal volume numbers should be in boldface type, with the year of publication immediately following in roman type, and enclosed in parentheses. References to URLs on the net should be “active” and the URL itself should be in typewriter font. Articles should include page numbers.

• • • •

The criteria are illustrated in the following.

[1] Civin, P., and B. Yood, Involutions on Banach algebras, Pacific J. Math. 9 (1959), 415–436. [2] Clifford, A. H., and G. B. Preston, “The Algebraic Theory of Semigroups,” Math. Surveys 7, Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, R.I., 1961. [3] Freyd, Peter, Peter O’Hearn, John Power, Robert Tennent and Makoto Takeyama, Bireflectivity, Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science 1 (1995), URL:


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[4] Easdown, D., and W. D. Munn, Trace functions on inverse semigroup algebras, U. of Glasgow, Dept. of Math., preprint 93/52. [5] Roscoe, A. W., “The Theory and Practice of Concurrency,” Prentice Hall Series in Computer Science, Prentice Hall Publishers, London, New York (1198), 565pp. With associated web site [6] Shehadah, A. A., “Embedding theorems for semigroups with involution, “ Ph.D. thesis, Purdue University, Indiana, 1982. [7] Weyl, H., “The Classical Groups,” 2nd Ed., Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1946.


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...English 1101 9 October 2013 Midterm Reflection I have done a variety of different assignments throughout my English 1101 class this semester. The assignments that have had the most influence on me include select chapters from J.M. Bohannon’s I Hate Writing, Anne Lamott’s “Shitty First Drafts”, Stephen King’s On Writing, and my practice with rhetorical analysis. Each of these assignments have significantly impacted me and caused me to view my own writing differently. They have helped me grow as a writer as well as come closer to finding my own writer’s “voice”. I have really enjoyed and learned from the chapters that I have read so far in I Hate Writing. My favorite chapter is chapter seven because Bohannon discusses many different ways to introduce a paper. I found her methods very helpful because I have a tendency to struggle when writing my introductions; I simply have no idea where to begin. Bohannon suggestions in chapter seven include telling a story, using a quotation, defining an unfamiliar term, directly stating an argument, writing in the reader, and being creative. After trying each of the options presented by Bohannon in this particular chapter, I found that using a quotation is my favorite technique. I feel it is the easiest way to start a paper off since I have something to base my paper off of. I also feel it is a good way to draw the reader in since a quote is simple, yet sets the theme and mood of a paper. I also appreciated the advice Bohannon gave......

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Quic Trip to Hell

...“All homosexuals will go to hell.” The path home was long and hard. Thinking about my future I noticed that there was no point in living. I couldn't help but to repeat Mr. Okawsky’s words in my head. The lecture burned my whole being; like, a fire quickly incinerates a news paper to a dust. My mind was racing life the horses at golden gate fields that I used to watch on the TV. At my new school I didn't feel welcomed since the first day. I was called a fagot on the first day of school and since then I have hated the christian school. In my mind I argued with my self, Am I going to burn in hell? Why? What the fuck did I do to deserve that? I didn't choose to be gay. If I am going to go to hell why should I continue to live this shitty life? Once I arrived home I was glutted with depression. I had never told my secret to anybody in my family so I did not have any body to talk to. I walked down the long lonely hall. As I walked down the hall I could hear the house creekas I walked into the Kitchen. Filled with loneliness and sadness I went straight to my families medicine cabinet, opened the wooden door and gazed at the hundreds of bottles. I knew at least one of them would help me with my sadness. I grabbed the orange tube and breathed. I felt relaxed holding the pill bottle in my hand. After taking a moment with the bottle I walked straight to my room. Down the creaky hall and into my brightly colored room. While in my room. I stared at the bottle filled......

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Bad Essay

...Gosh This Essay Smells Bad   In the article “Shitty First Drafts”, by Anne Lamott, she argues that writing is not such an  easy task, especially for professional writers in the writing process. She claims that writing takes  time and everyone must start from somewhere to become a better writer. Writing can be difficult  for experienced and inexperienced writers. I agree with Lamot that writing in a process is not  easy because writing can be frustrating, finding motivation to write and catching the reader's  attention.   Now don't get me wrong writing sounds easy but it's much more complicated than it  sounds. Writing actually frustrates me. Writing a first draft or prewrite can lead to frustration just  sitting there with a blank page in front of you. It takes me minutes or even hours just thinking  about how to write a paper. This completely drive me nuts. Even Authors who first started  writing novels struggled and got so frustrated at times to write the perfect book in there eyes. It  made them want to give up at times. But I believe it's something a experienced or inexperienced  writer could overcome and get through to write a good paper.   One thing that certainly got professional writers to write great novels or papers was  motivation. Motivation is a major key to writing a great paper. One of people's biggest mistakes  when writing is assuming they will receive a bad grade or bad review for their work. When they  assume this it usually causes th......

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My Roommate

...I'll just leave my car here, and I'd rather if no one else drove it we'll have to go back to the apartment and come back here with your car if you want me to drive this truck." So Jon went in to the U-Haul place and asked if he could pay for the U-Haul if someone *else* would be driving. While Jon was inside, Ari said to me, "Why doesn't Jon ever think these things through? Every time, he always asks me to do shit for him on the spur of the moment...I've never even driven something like that and I don't need to have some kind of accident on my record...the worst thing is, I always feel bad for just wanting to say, no, even though in the end, I never do." I remarked back, "Maybe that's why Jon doesn't bother me with his shitty relationship bullshit. Because I've never been afraid to call him out on any of it...I guess that's why Jon says you're the better roommate too, haha..." Jon came back and confirmed that it would be possible for him to pay for the truck and insurance, while someone else drove the truck. And so, we went back to the apartment to get Jon's car. At the apartment, Ari realized that Jon had gotten some mail the day prior that he had not opened...and lo and behold, it was Jon's renewed driver's license. Since Jon could now drive the truck, we started driving back to the U-Haul place in Ari's car -- since Ari could, just as planned, drive behind. On the way there, we got stopped as a queue of MetroRail cars crossed by, transporting...

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Fish Tank Review

...fight with a group of girls because of their "terrible dancing". Within virtually no time at all, we've learned just about everything we need to know about Mia: she's loves dance, she's alone, and she's a complete bitch. The latter makes liking her very difficult. Yet at the end of the movie I was able relate to her enough to actually like her. What I enjoyed most about this film is how real it felt. It's so well acted, most notably by Jarvis, I felt transported back to my teenage years when I felt the same as this kid: miserable and angry. Perhaps it's due to Jarvis's real age that makes her performance so authentic. Arnold's writing of this film is nothing short of flawless. Watching it, I felt trapped in a shitty family, in a shitty town, and under shitty circumstances right along with Mia. The backdrop Arnold chose to shoot against, again, a great and flawless move. Every step Mia takes through her world mirrors the crappy emotions going on inside her head. It works out wonderfully. The conflict Arnold creates in this film is fantastic, and Mia is the cause of most of it. Her only real dream is to be a dancer. She gets the chance to pursue the dream, and the outcome might surprise a few people. The story gets really interesting when Mia's mother brings home her latest boyfriend. Right from the get-go he's unrelentingly nice, but it's clear he has some issues of his own. When those issues came to light I was blown away. All of this adds up to an explosive......

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