Free Essay

Rrl of Nsaids Against Dsymenorrhea

In: Science

Submitted By tiffanyespiritu
Words 291
Pages 2
Review of Related Literature: Dysmenorrhea among women is not common, most of the time women choose to miss out on the whole day of activities because the pain that it can cause. Because of that there are medications in the market that are being sold to prevent or lessen the said pain; one of these drugs is NSAIDs. NSAIDs are the most commonly prescribed treatment, and essentially the first line of defense against cases of severe primary dysmenorrhea (Locklear, 2008). According to Medscape Medical News, comparison of various NSAIDs vs. other NSAIDs showed limited evidence that any individual NSAID was superior for either pain relief or safety. For patients who consistently experience moderate to severe pain during menstrual flow, scheduled dosing of NSAIDs may provide more consistent pain relief than prescribing them to be taken "as needed" (Goldschneider & Waldo, 2008). According to Helms (2006), NSAIDS and COX-2 inhibitors relieve pain of dysmenorrhea via inhibition of cyclooxygenase (1 and 2), the enzyme that converts arachidonic acid to prostaglandins. The COS-2 inhibitors rofecoxib (VIOXX) and valdecoxib (Bextra) have been approved by the FDA for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in women 18 yrs and older (Locklear, 2008). But then NSAIDS are only successful in 77% to 80% of patients with dysmenorrhea (Gourley, Helms, Herfindal & Quan, 2006). Many NSAIDs block the cyclooxygenase pathways, but they do not block the lipoxygenase pathway, these observations may explain why these drugs do not relieve primary dysmenorrhea in all patients (Tollison, 2002). For the patients who do not respond to NSAIDs and/or oral contraceptives, a wide range of alternating therapies have been proven effective, including transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), acupuncture, omega-3 fatty acids, transdermal nitroglycerin, thiamine and magnesium supplement (Taylor, 2003).…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Case for, or Against

...Assignment 2: LASA 2—The Case For, or Against, New Orleans Sometimes one’s choices may involve catastrophic decisions and bear great risk and yet there can be no clear answer. For example, if a person gets a divorce, shutters a plant, sells a losing investment, or closes their business, will he or she be better off? The following case incorporates nearly all of the material you have covered this far and presents an example of one such choice where nearly all of the alternatives have a significant downside risk. Review the following information from the article “A Cost-Benefit Analysis of the New Orleans Flood Protection System” by Stéphane Hallegatte (2005): • Hallegatte, an environmentalist, assigns a probability (p) of a Katrina-like hurricane of 1/130 in his cost-benefit analysis for flood protection. However, the levees that protect New Orleans also put other regions at greater risk. You may assume the frequency of other floods is greater than Katrina-like events (Vastag & Rein, 2011). • The new levees that were built in response to Katrina cost approximately fourteen billion dollars (in 2010). This is in addition to the direct costs of Katrina (eighty-one billion dollars in 2005). • 50 percent of New Orleans is at or below sea level. • A 100-year event means that there is a 63 percent chance that such an event will occur within a 100-year period. • The following are the interested (anchored and/or biased) constituencies: o Residents of New Orleans—both those......

Words: 575 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

With and Against the Grain

...Brian Kopp 10/8/08 Expository Writing Shelby Brenn With and Against the Grain In Robert Jensen’s “Being Colorblind Does Not Offset Innate Advantages of White Privilege,” he says that despite “progression” of anti-racism in America, our society is still racist. He states that the very method, “colorblindness,” is racist. He argues that being colorblind is a privilege only whites can have. He states that whites are privileged because they do not have to worry about how they are judged by the people they encounter. Jensen explains more in depth this statement by showing how racism affects non-white people, but not white people. Jensen does, however, propose a solution. He suggests that instead of de-racing people, Americans need to acknowledge differences in cultures, and also understand the obstacles different people face due to racial and social norms. Jensen makes his final claim that despite the perception of America as being a level playing field, non-whites are still constrained by social barriers. With the Grain For most of my life, I have lived in places with little diversity. I grew up in a small town called Smithville, which had very little diversity. There were only one or two black families who lived in Smithville. There were even less Asian and Hispanic families there. The vast majority of people were white. All the teachers in my elementary school and high school were white. I did not encounter much diversity in Smithville, but the lack of......

Words: 1194 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Violence Against Women in Lebanon

...Findings……………………………………………………………………3 Violence against women in Lebanon………….3 Education Statistics in Lebanon…………..…...4  Research Analysis…………………………………………………………6 Intervention…………………………………..12 Personal Beliefs……………………...……….12 Executive Summary The purpose of this report was to raise awareness about abused women in Lebanon and try to promote their rights. Research for this report included true based stories from reality shows and social media, furthermore, literature on web-based tuitions and interview with a professional social worker who deals with abused women. This report provides an analysis and evaluation of the current and prospective of women abuse concentrating in South of Lebanon. Other calculations include rates of numbers of women being abused including statistics of women educated in Lebanon. We also found two reality shows where men clarify why women are allowed to be abused and that it is the right thing to do in certain situations. Furthermore, we inserted KAFAA’s point of view on this matter including what type of situations they dealt with. Also, we have a valid report on the behaviors of the victim and the abuser by a Dr. from psychology department. The interview reveals reasons to why women are abused and how should they react to it. The report finds that even though the government tried to pass a bill that will give women some rights, the religious groups withdrew the law by claiming that it is against their beliefs......

Words: 2994 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Against Prohibition

...Ayesa Mir AP U.S History Ms. Loveridge 20 March 2014 Against Prohibition Prohibition was an experiment on morality, and emphasized by the Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) during the 1920s. It had been an intention to reduce crime, domestic abuse, and prevent addictions. Those reasons seem attractive enough to promote Prohibition laws. Unfortunately, the task was easier said than done, for the obvious backups. 1. Freedom: Taking away the rights of drinking puts a question on the individual’s freedom. It also doesn’t infringe freedoms of other people. Therefore, prohibition on alcohol would remove the freedom of drinking for many people. 2. Victimless Crime: Similar to the first reason, people should have the liberty to decide whether to harm themselves or not. Alcohol addiction is basically a victimless crime, since it primarily affects the alcoholic. Others can keep their distance away from the drinker, if he chooses to do so. 3. Underground or Black Markets: Those who desire alcohol, can still either buy it or make it, although at higher prices and seedier locations. These types of markets are forced to operate outside of formal economies, therefore, avoiding taxes or skirting price controls. Gangs would often smuggle drinks from Canada and the Caribbean, open up speakeasies, and allow people to have a fun time along with drinking their favorite alcoholic concoctions. 4. Safety: Alcoholic drinks made without government regulations can prove harmful side......

Words: 552 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Crimes Against Property

...Crimes against Property 2 The definition for property crimes, according to; property crimes are crimes related to theft or destruction of someone else’s property. The crimes can range for shoplifting as the lower level and armed robbery and arson as the higher level. Illustrate the different ways that the taking requirement can be met in the crime of shoplifting, and how private security officers are trained to handle a shoplifting incident. The crime of shoplifting, according to Gardner/ Anderson, (2012); is retail theft, is form of theft and larceny. Shoplifting has the same essential elements as theft and larceny: a taking and carrying away, of the property of another, without consent and with intent to steal and deprive the owner of possession of the property. In modern self-service stores, customers are invited to examine merchandise in display. According to Gardner/ Anderson, (2012); garment may be taken to dressing room and tried on. Stores do not consent to concealment of their merchandise by customers. The merchandise is offered for sale, and if customers are not going to purchase an object, they are obligated to return the merchandise to the display counter in good condition. Private security officers and retail employees, according to Gardner/ Anderson, (2012); if crime was not seen, it has not happened.......

Words: 950 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

For Against Electoral

...For or Against Electoral College System Introduction to U.S. Government In my opinion the Electoral College system is not the best system for electing the U.S. President today. Electoral College system has ebbed and flowed with the possibility of an election resulting in no majority winner, due to a viable third party candidate, or the possibility of a president being elected without winning the popular vote. It's not fair to the candidates running for office, not fair to the campaign volunteers and especially not fair to the American people. Although the Electoral College System was originally considered to be a brilliant innovation that cleverly solved a cluster of 18th-century problems, as we approach the 21st century, we confront different problems and our constitutional system of presidential selection does not look so brilliant. I believe that the Electoral College should be abolished and a direct election of the President and Vice President of the United States by popular vote should be established. The current Electoral College System is unfair for several reasons. One of the most obvious faults is that a president can be elected without winning a majority of the popular vote. It is an insult to democracy for a candidate, after winning the popular vote, to lose the election and the presidency. In addition, a citizen's individual vote has more weight if he or she lives in a state with a small population and a proportionately larger number of electoral seats. It......

Words: 455 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Rrl-the Antimicrobial Activity of E. Hirta Against S. Pyogenes

...antihelmintic, lactagogue, antipyretic, anti-inflammation, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer (Hussain et al., 2014), which is also stated by Perumal et al. (2012 and recounted of additional biological activities of E. hirta such as antixiolytic, antihypertensive, antimalarial and antidiarrhoeial (p. 69). The target microorganisms of antimicrobial activity of the plant related studies often develop new genetic variants which subsequently become resistant to available antimicrobial agents and the effective lifespan of any antibiotic is thus limited (Rajeh et al., 2010). Same as with the study of Hussain et al. (2014) wherein he stated that survey study has revealed that almost all the microbes have developed resistance against all introduced antibiotics, such microbes are methicillin resistant Staphylococci, vancomycin resistant Enterococci, penicillin resistant Pneumococci and gram-negative microbes having multi-drug resistant, are the prominent examples of the drug resistance (p. 546). One of the bacteria that show an increase in the incidence of antibiotic-resistant clinical surveillance of antimicrobial resistance patterns (Camara et al., 2013). According to Camara et al. (2013), respiratory tract infections, such as acute sinusitis, acute otitis media, pharyngitis, community-acquired pneumonia, and acute bronchitis, are widespread and represent a major health concern particularly in low resource settings and one of the major causes of these is......

Words: 3671 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Against Meat

...October 11, 2009 The Food Issue Against Meat By JONATHAN SAFRAN FOER THE FRUITS OF FAMILY TREES When I was young, I would often spend the weekend at my grandmother’s house. On my way in, Friday night, she would lift me from the ground in one of her fire-smothering hugs. And on the way out, Sunday afternoon, I was again taken into the air. It wasn’t until years later that I realized she was weighing me. My grandmother survived World War II barefoot, scavenging Eastern Europe for other people’s inedibles: rotting potatoes, discarded scraps of meat, skins and the bits that clung to bones and pits. So she never cared if I colored outside the lines, as long as I cut coupons along the dashes. I remember hotel buffets: while the rest of us erected Golden Calves of breakfast, she would make sandwich upon sandwich to swaddle in napkins and stash in her bag for lunch. It was my grandmother who taught me that one tea bag makes as many cups of tea as you’re serving, and that every part of the apple is edible. Her obsession with food wasn’t an obsession with money. (Many of those coupons I clipped were for foods she would never buy.) Her obsession wasn’t with health. (She would beg me to drink Coke.) My grandmother never set a place for herself at family dinners. Even when there was nothing more to be done — no soup bowls to be topped off, no pots to be stirred or ovens checked — she stayed in the kitchen, like a vigilant guard (or prisoner) in a tower. As far as I could tell,...

Words: 3714 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Against Love

...Jorge Rodriguez-Sawao Professor DiAngelo ENG112 March 31st, 2014 In Favor of Love Laura Kipnis, in her essay Against love, touches many aspects of love. It is a sensitive topic simply because love brings out many different opinions and beliefs. The author argues the fact that in order to have a good relationship and love we need to meet creating requirements like good communication, coherence and close relationship or intimacy. It is an interesting essay. What quite caught my attention is that at the beginning of the essay, the author says “Love is, as we know, a mysterious and controlling force. It has vast power over our thoughts and life decisions. It demands our loyalty, and we, in turn, freely comply. (Kipnis 734). This is the simplest way to explain what love is about. When people realize that you really love someone we do and say things you never imagine. Love is an important part of life. Life without love is like an ocean without water. Love is not something you find on the streets or stumble on. It grows on you with time. On the essay, the author, also refers about passion. “Of course, the parties involved must work at keeping passion alive ….. (Kipnis 736). Passion can be described in two words: strong and uncontrollable. We can’t control how we feel about the people, activities and ideas in our lives. Passion unfortunately is not always a good thing especially it can make a person incompetent. Everyone has a passion of their own and their pursue......

Words: 559 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Against "Against Utilitarianism

...Against “Against Utilitarianism” Utilitarianism, a form of consequentialism, is one of the most notable and influential moral theories. The basic concept behind utilitarianism is that the morality of an action is based solely on the consequences it produces. People possessing utilitarian views believe that a person’s actions should be chosen to maximize utility for the greater good of all people. In the article “Against Utilitarianism,” British philosopher Bernard Williams aims to discredit the validity of the utilitarian argument. He supports his argument through examples of moral dilemmas and working definitions of utilitarian terms. Although Williams presents a compelling case against utilitarianism, such a prominent theory in philosophy cannot be reproached so quickly. Utilitarianism enhances overall happiness and utility without disparaging individual integrity. The concepts making up utilitarianism are extensive, however two of the most fundamental concepts include negative responsibility and integrity. Negative responsibility is the belief that a person is as responsible for the consequences of an action that they failed to prevent as they are for the actions they carry out. The idea of negative responsibility is directly related to utilitarianism because it deals with the concept that a person is responsible for consequences brought about by their being. This includes a person’s lack of action which, in itself, is considered an action to a utilitarian. Based on......

Words: 1084 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Against School

...In the article Against School, written by John Taylor Gatto, compares school to the concept of boredom. He also explores the question if school is really as necessary as we make it. Also, explains the situation with the fact that most famous people didn’t go to school and they still managed became very successful people in life. Gatto expresses how students and teachers are both bored because, students are being taught information that they already know, while teachers are bored because they feel that the students have bad attitudes and do not want to learn but just want good grades. Boredom is the common condition to everyone who spends time in school. Mandatory education serves children only incidentally; its real purpose is to turn children into servants. Well-schooled kids have a low threshold for boredom because school trains children to obey reflexively. Also, people are conditioned to dread being alone, and seek constant companionship through the TV, the computer, the cell phone, and through shallow friendships quickly acquired and quickly abandon. He supposes he can bring out the best qualities in children by giving them autonomy to make decisions and take risks from time to time, rather than confining them to schooling. Gatto’s breaks down the purposes in placing Inglis’ “six basic funtions” of school by trying to overemphasize the reason for public education. Of course, in a sense, these functions have some validity to them, but Gatto makes it seem that students...

Words: 458 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Violence Against Buddhsim

...A Study on Violence Against Buddhism by Korean Protestantism: Centering on the Wonmyeong Temple and Bongeun Temple Incidents Introduction: Violent Attacks on Buddhism by Protestants In the past, there have been numerous incidents where extremist Korean Protestants have damaged statues of the Buddha or Buddhist temples. Such incidents pose serious risks to society as these examples of destruction do not only disregard a certain religion, but are also highly violent in nature. Many high-profile cases have been reported: Arson of the Daejeokgwangjeon of Geumsansa Temple in 1986; the destruction of a stone pagoda and lantern of Okcheonam Temple in Hongeun-dong in 1989; the damaging of the Tangible Cultural Asset No. 17 stone-carved Buddha Statue in 1989; the enclosing of a shrine and burning of a Buddha statue by an army officer in Siheung, Gyeonggi-do in 1993; the arrest of a pastor and his fellows by local police officers for destroying a Buddha statue in Thailand in 1994; a Buddhist accidently killed while he was trying to prevent a Christian from intruding into a Buddhist monastery to distribute Christian missionary materials in 1996; the destruction, damage of 750 Buddha statues in Jeju by a Christian (named Kim) in his attempt to transform Wonmyeong Temple into a church in 1998; the damaging of the Buddha statue at Dongguk University in 2000; and the frenzy over a video clip about missionary students doing a performance involving stepping on the Bongeun Temple site...

Words: 7933 - Pages: 32

Free Essay

Argument Against God

...Kenneth Ferrante Philosophy-Imparato December 11, 2013 Writing Assignment Argument Against God For the concept I chose Nagel’s argument against god. Nagel claims that because evil exists it indicates that God must not exist. Premise one states that God is all knowing, all-powerful, and all good. This portrays God as a being that could see, oppose, and destroy Evil with ease, but that isn’t the case, Evil is still in existence. Premise two expands off the claim that God is all-powerful, meaning that God could eliminate all Evil, but he hasn’t. Premise three demonstrates the claim that God is all knowing; therefore he is aware of all Evil. Premise four explains how God is all good meaning that He opposes all things Evil. Premise five claims that Evil is still found throughout God’s world. Thus supporting the conclusion that God cannot exist if Evil is still in existence, which it is. In my opinion, I find Nagel’s argument to be extremely compelling and one hundred percent possible. The idea that God is a being whole is all knowing, all-powerful, and all good suggests that he would create the best possible world. There are various examples that I found to be effective but the idea of a hole in a t-shirt, I found to be simplest and most understandable that demonstrates the inability for God to exist. Although this might be true and God may not exist I have a different outlook. If Evil did not exist what purpose would God serve? He is the protector of Evil and justifies......

Words: 803 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay


...I am against at early marriage because at very young age early marriage can destroy our lives and it gives us big responsibility and many problems. Responsibility has to be shouldered at a very young age. One has to take on household responsibilities, child rearing responsibility. There is no adult to guide or help out. Missing out on the fun of teenage life and being young. The hard of married life can get to you. They deprive you of your youth. Health also can get affected as early pregnancy can have a negative impact on overall health. Breakdown of marriage is possible. Often the young couple is immature to shoulder major responsibility and end up fighting with each other. Adjustment problems may arise. Education also gets affected. The young couple may not be able to pursue higher education as they have to take on the responsibilities of family budget. Work opportunities are limited for the youngsters. Since their education levels are low, they cannot get highly paid jobs. Bringing up children may be difficult. Their knowledge of child care may be limited and parental guidance is also not there. They may not be able to provide the appropriate care for their child. When your young your not yet mature, and haven't had the chance to live life, and at a young age, you haven't always finished school or secured a good job, your not financially ready and this causes many young marriages to end prematurely. At a young age, you really don't know what u want from life until your......

Words: 548 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Soc Psy Rrl

...example, overall results tended to support this pattern. Lifestyle behaviours tend to occur together in adults, so that individuals who adopt a healthy lifestyle with regard to one aspect of their lives tend to do so in others as well. This pattern also appears to occur in adolescents. For example, problem behaviours such as smoking and other drug use, sexual activity, riding with a drinking driver, carrying a weapon, and physical fighting have been associated with lower levels of healthenhancing behaviours such as seatbelt use, positive eating behaviour, and adequate sleep. Alcohol and other drug use increased the risk of smoking among adolescents—for example, whereas participation in sports or other physical exercise consistently protected against smoking—for example, Not following a healthy lifestyle can be considered a form of risk taking if the individual has knowledge of its health implications. Although this knowledge was not assessed in some of the studies reviewed, it is unlikely that young people are unaware of the health risks of unprotected sexual activity or the use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs. Hence, adoption of behaviours such as these can be considered to be risk taking in most adolescents. Research results supported the conclusion that these unhealthy practices were related to smoking initiation and maintenance in a wide range of settings. WHY DO SOME ADOLESCENTS DRINK? As children move from......

Words: 4464 - Pages: 18