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Psychology Perspective

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Psychology Perspective
Darla Houston
AIU Online

Abstract
In this paper I will be discussing the similarities and differences between the three different Psychology Perspectives or specific theories of early Psychology. One theory used will be Structuralism. Another theory used in this paper will be the Functionalism. And lastly the Evolutionary theory will be used. This paper will explain three to four differences between each of the three theories listed and reviewed facts and see how one of these theories is superior to the others or that all three are comparable or equal. The thesis for this essay is “No matter how careful evolution, structuralism, and functionalism are examined, there is no evidence that these will not change in the future”

Psychology Perspectives

Structuralism, Functionalism, and Evolutionary theories each have similarities and differences among them. Both Structuralism and functionalism reflect the fact that consciousness is the subject matter, but both differ in how each should be studied. Evolutionary theory has potential to integrate conceptual approaches to study behavioral development for human adaption in both humans and animals which Structuralism and Functionalism stem form. Structuralism has many mental processes that are broken down into basic components. Functionalism forms a reaction to Structuralism which focuses on the purpose of both consciousness and behavior and emphasizes individual differences. Influenced by Darwin’s evolutionary theory, William James, John Dewey, James Rowland Angell, and Harvey A. Carr, all led a movement to determine what consciousness was and put it into its basic elements such as the study of sensations, feelings, and images. After one of Wilhelm Wundt’s students, E.B. Titchener advocated Structuralism in the United States. However, competition from an opposing school of thought called Functionalism set out to determine what consciousness was used for, rather the merely its structure. Each one was similar in studying Consciousness, its purpose, function, and mental processes, but in different ways. One similarity is that both took interest in the mental process and both had a desire for psychology to become scientific. The action of both led to rapid spread of psychology in the United States which gives Stanley hall a reason to establish the first Psychology Laboratory at Johns Hopkins University in 1883. Dozens of laboratories were created by 1900 and the American Psychology Association was founded. Both Structuralism and Functionalism made significant contributions that give any Psychology today the opportunity to study both structure and function. (Epsychlopedia, 2009) “In Wundt’s view, the mind had the power to organize mental elements voluntarily” (Schultz, D.P. & Schultz, S.E. 2008,p.122). (&).
Functionalism differs from Structuralism in the way it studies theories. For Instance. Functionalism studies society in a way that it depends on all parts of society to make up the whole unified result. On the other hand Functionalism influenced behaviorism and applied psychology, as well as influenced and educational system. One example and fact is that John Dewey believed that children should always learn at the level they are developmentally prepared (Wagner Van, K; 2009) Structuralism studies that the individual in order to understand society. Structuralism is important in being the first major school of thought in Psychology and also influenced experimental psychology. In order to structuralism relied on a method called introspection. Introspection, however, had a principle flaw and was one basic reason that structuralism completely died in psychology upon Wundt’s death (Psychology World, 2006). One big difference between Structuralism and Functionalism is the way they are processed. Notice that while Structuralism was the first school of thought in psychology. Functionalism emerged afterwards and no one can argue that structuralism contributed greatly to the field of psychology. (Lim, R; 2007)
Evolution is a fact that theory that always result in new development of species. Although when scientists speak of an evolutionary proposition that the earth is round rather than flat, they did not mean it as mere speculation but rather a theory in the same sense that humans are made of atoms rather than dust. Most everyone whom is religious or call themselves a Christian will deny evolution due to their own religious beliefs. Darwin’s religious faith was challenged when the death of his 10 year old daughter Annie died in 1851 which led him to believe that his God created the order of the universe including the rules of nature that result in biological evolution which can be read in his book On the Origin of Species. (O’Neil, D; 1998-2009) Evolutionary function of thinking and behaving as well as testing for the purpose of Eugenics is influenced by the theory of evolution. Some solid core principles of Darwin’s theory of evolution were continuity between animals and humans, living things changing over a period of time, Spontaneous variability is inherited and natural selection and misunderstood concept of “survival of the fittest” will change by trial and error which was an idea that was borrowed fro Thomas Malthus. (Mitchell, Mark, L’ Dr. 2009).
In conclusion the main points to summarize in this essay would be the thesis statement. No matter how careful evolution, structuralism, and functionalism are examined, there is no evidence that these will not change in the future. Change is inevitable and constant, it moves rapidly faster than anyone can keep up with which is also fact for evolution. Whether the reader is reviewing Functionalism or Structuralism, consciousness can be broken down into Physical Sensations, Feelings, and Images. Although behavioral patterns have evolved in order to solve adaptive problems, Natural selection also favors behavioral enhancing reproductive success.

References http://www.freeonlineresearchpapers.com/structuralism-vs-functionalism http://library.thinkquest.org/C005870/history/index.php?id=historyPI http://psychology.about.com/od/historyofpsychology/a/structuralism.htm http://web.umr.edu/-psyworld/structuralism.htm#1…...

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