Free Essay

Prospects for Political Transition in Zimbabwe

In: Historical Events

Submitted By frank
Words 3281
Pages 14
Chris Maroleng1
AFRICAN SECURITY ANALYSIS PROGRAMME
CLOSED ROUND TABLE REPORT, 14 MAY 2003
Executive Summary
Recent statements by President Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe indicating that he might be contemplating retirement have revived speculation about the preconditions he would consider essential to guarantee his personal safety after leaving office. More broadly, there is increasing debate about the possible shape of a post-Mugabe dispensation, and how a new government might begin to tackle the serious economic and political difficulties facing the country.Even members of Zimbabwe’s ruling establishment now commonly accept that the formal economy is in a state of near collapse. Whatever their publicly-stated positions, leading figures in ZANU-PF admit that a return to international respectability and the resumption of aid and loan flows are urgently needed if a complete economic meltdown is to be averted. There are, however, some dissenting voices about the way Zimbabwe should handle its future relations with the World Bank, IMF and donor community, and these represent a significant faction across the formal political divide. The views of these intellectuals will have to be considered even as the international community attempts to ease Zimbabwe out of its political and economic impasse.
In the short term, it appears that the economic crisis has affected the domestic political balance of power in a number of ways. First, its effect on the living standards of the vast majority of Zimbabweans has created a groundswell of support for opponents of the current government, whose mismanagement and corruption are seen to be at the heart of the problem. Much of this discontent is manifested through the support given to the
Movement for Democratic Change (MDC). There must obviously be a question about the viability of the MDC in a ZANU-PF dominated, post-Mugabe dispensation, especially if the international community does help alleviate the economic crisis in the aftermath of an "acceptable" political settlement. This systemic vulnerability of the MDC will obviously be a consideration in the minds of the various actors as they seek a solution favourable to their own interests. One of the more interesting aspects of the economic crisis has been the number of opportunities it has created for the well connected to accumulate substantial fortunes, either by rent seeking, currency speculation, smuggling or the acquisition of capital assets at bargain prices. There are, however, indications that such opportunities are diminishing, and the inward flow of foreign exchange is now drying up as currency brokers relocate their activities abroad. This, and the restricting sanctions that have caused some discomfort to many of the elite, makes it difficult for the new rich to enjoy the benefits of their wealth. Thus, within ZANU-PF itself there is a substantial faction whose business interests push them to contemplate ways in which to reverse the rapid economic decline. Other elements in the ruling party realize that their own chances of privileged survival in a post-Mugabe environment are slender. These individuals will probably continue to persuade Mugabe that he should prolong his stay in office, ignoring or suppressing those "evil counsellors" whose own ambition is cloaked in expressions of patriotic concern. This hard-line faction will continue to urge the suppression of the opposition, within and outside the ruling party. Another faction within ZANU-PF recognizes that its chances of securing the presidential succession, and thus control of the patronage network of the state, are minimal unless some kind of agreement is reached with the opposition to allow for an amendment to the constitution. Such an agreement would ease the eradication of the constitutional requirement for a new presidential election to be held within 90 days of the incumbent leaving office. Only a negotiated exit could pave the way to power for the Speaker, Emmerson Mnangagwa, whose chances of winning the party's presidential nomination in an open contest, and subsequently securing the presidency in an internationally monitored election, may be discounted. Some rival groups within the party want to avoid Mnangagwa's accession at virtually any cost. They will either try to discredit the negotiations with the MDC, or open their own talks sub rosa. One of these groups is seen to be centred on the eminence grise,
Solomon Mujuru, and there is some debate as to the extent of its influence within the security establishment. The security forces have been fractured into professional, political, and irregular wings, and there can be no certainty that they have a coherent political position, not least because the members of the formal security forces have seen their families' economic positions eroded along with those of the rest of the population. Apart from these groupings within ZANU-PF there are also a number of opportunists who lack defined constituencies. They will tend to defend the status quo until they see change as being unavoidable, at which point they will position themselves to best advantage. In order to facilitate the discussion of theses topics, the African Security Analysis Programme at the Institute for Security Studies invited a small group of observers and analysts from Zimbabwe and South Africa to participate in a roundtable discussion on
14 May 2003.
3
Deliberations and Conclusions of the Round Table
The delegates at the round table discussion generally agreed that Zimbabwe was in a state of unprecedented crisis. There may have been differences in the articulation of the causes and nature of the crisis. Nevertheless, the participants concurred that Zimbabwe is facing a multi-layered crisis that requires a multi-pronged approach. The Zimbabwean opposition, its civil society and the SADC region are gripped by a pervasive uncertainty as to what should be done to take Zimbabwe out of this largely self-induced quagmire.
The participants agreed that the solution to the Zimbabwe crisis will have, realistically and very delicately, to balance, amongst other things, economic and political exigencies and justice and reconciliation concerns. The balance of forces in the country is too close to call and thus no single entity can go it alone.
Origins and Nature of the Zimbabwean Crisis
The round table participants saw the Zimbabwean crisis as a confluence of several colonial and post-independence experiences, namely:
The failure of the independence leadership to transform the repressive colonial state structure into a democratic institution. Related to this is the failure of liberation movements (ZAPU and ZANU PF) to transform into a democratic government and concomitantly the failure to deliver on the independence promise of freedom;
The dismal failure of IMF/World Bank structural adjustment policies that had a very weak human development component. The result was mass impoverishment of
Zimbabweans;
The gradual capture of the state by a corrupt, self-seeking and authoritarian political elite. The lack of accountability of the post-independence government is related to the under-development of the concept of citizenship and participatory democracy.
The colony conditioned the majority of Zimbabweans to acquiesce and comply with decisions and actions taken by politicians, regardless of their independent thoughts on the issues. They were compelled to act as mere unquestioning recipients and the cost of non-compliance was always too heavy;
The contradictory nature of neo-liberal democracy that prescribed the weakening of the state when the human developmental deficits accumulated during the colonial and cold war era required an interventionist state. This, in part, compounded the state’s inability to redistribute resources in a coherent and orderly manner. Hence the crisis of legitimacy and politics of chaos referred to elsewhere in this paper;
A failure of post-independence leadership and the crisis of follower-ship. Patronage systems based on region, tribe and political affiliation have led to the demise of meritocracy and market economics. These systems have turned mediocrity into a virtue and ethics into a rude word. In this regard one of the delegates pointed out that
Zimbabwe is a nation of accomplices joined together by tribe, region, political affiliation and war credentials. Government, amongst other vices, specializes in covers and cover-ups. It is for this reason that a justice system manned by kinsmen and party cadres is as evil as the Rhodesian system which was constructed along racial lines;
A colonially inherited culture of intolerance and impunity.
These broad factors highlighted by the delegates have had their most dramatic manifestations in the following:
4
Endemic political violence and gross human rights violations have taken place at the behest of the state or political elite, while the politically unconnected have no access to justice;
There is unbridled corruption, accompanied by asset stripping, poor stewardship over national resources and, in fact, their privatization by the political elite in government; Terminal levels of both de jure and de facto impunity are enjoyed by various types of criminals. The most evident symptoms of this are the disregard of the doctrine of separation of powers and the general breakdown in the rule of law. Para-state arms of terror have assumed a status above the law and have thus effectively become a parallel government, invading farms, companies, NGOs and heaven knows what else; Bad politics produce declining economies, misery and despondency. This has led to capital flight and fatal levels of brain drain as young professionals seek less troubled waters in which to fish. This politics of chaos might at worst result in civil strife;
Increased militarization of the state and state institutions has taken place in a time of relative peace;
The voices of the peasantry have been smothered through economic and physical coercion. Food is used as a political weapon in engaging starving communities.
Related to this is the failure of the fast-track land programme to transform the contradictions in the agrarian sector by effectively dealing with questions of access to credit and inputs, tenure and traditional leaders’ role in transformed agrarian relations. The round table therefore agreed that the current crisis in Zimbabwe is a confluence of four interlinking themes, namely land and food security; governance and citizenship; civil society and democratization; and the regional and international interventions. The crisis in Zimbabwe is essentially structural and deep-rooted. Tinkering with peripheral symptoms and changing personalities cannot address them. Neither can they be addressed through piecemeal measures. They require far-reaching, honest and allencompassing solutions. Implications of the Crisis and Lack of Solutions It was the opinion of a number of the delegates that the political parties in Zimbabwe lack either the credibility or the capacity to resolve Zimbabwe’s multi-layered crisis. The objective factors on the ground suggest that if the crisis is not resolved the following consequences will escalate:
Further decline in the gross domestic product and eventual collapse of the national economy; Collapse of key national institutions leading to further cycles of poverty, in particular the collapse of the education, health, tourism and agriculture sectors, with a possible contagion effect on the entire SADC region;
Exacerbation of existing socio-economic problems such as poverty, the rates of
HIV/AIDS infection and deaths (the latest United Nations Economic Commission on
Africa figures show a severe reversal of the Human Development Index);
Deterioration of the rights and welfare of women and other vulnerable groups (over
80% of the population is now living below the poverty datum line);
5
Lasting reversal of the gains the country made in the first ten years of independence and the achievements of the liberation movements, whose image will be shattered in the process The deep psychological scarring and emotional trauma suffered by poor and marginalized people, in particular, will become harder and harder to heal: there is already a back-log of this dating back from pre-colonial days to the present;
Possibility of civil strife, which will be harder to resolve given the current state of the forces of law and order.
Regional Implications
The discussion in the round table also highlighted the possibility of escalated conflict as imminent. No country in the region remains untouched by the Zimbabwean crisis. Some countries in the region are tightening their immigration laws and policies to deal with the evergrowing numbers of Zimbabwean economic and political refugees.
Notwithstanding the benefits that have accrued to some countries in the region, who have been able to replace Zimbabwe’s market share in the EU and international markets, the interdependent nature of the regional economies is being undermined by the persistence of the Zimbabwe crisis. The continued prevarication by some regional leaders in supporting the process of political transition in Zimbabwe jeopardizes the current and future economic and political prospects of SADC, the AU, NEPAD and the welfare of the peoples of the region in general.
In this regard, it was established that Zimbabwe is caught in a destructive political impasse. Until now, opposition political parties, civil society and the business community have prevailed in convincing citizens to follow the peaceful route in the face of unprecedented provocation. The current restraint will be sustainable only if efforts at an amicable settlement are stepped up.
Creating an Enabling Environment for Negotiations
In order to create an environment for a credible and legitimate negotiation process the round table recommended that the following should take place:
disbanding of the youth militia;
putting an end to the partisan distribution of food;
cessation of all arbitrary arrests, intimidation and subjective prosecution of all members of the opposition and civil society activists;
release of civil society and opposition political activists and withdrawal of unjustified political prosecutions;
repeal of repressive laws, in particular POSA, AIPPA and the Broadcasting Services
Act;
granting of equal access to the mass electronic media;
freeing the national air-waves by ending the ZBC monopoly.
These preconditions represent the immediate expectations of Zimbabwe’s opposition groups and civil society. The round table agreed that they should be met through an irreversible process endorsed by all stakeholders in a memorandum of agreement. The
6
interlocutors and would-be interlocutors should have a clear mandate from all key stakeholders; they should be neutral and capable of bringing a solution to the problem.
ZANU PF’s position
Current interests and thinking
The round table discussions concerning ZANU PF and Mugabe are reflected in the following points:
It seems Mugabe sees the need and importance of going. It is not so much that he wants to go (there is a difference here), and he wants some specific guarantees;
He is tired, he has no solutions to the crisis;
He cannot travel, and is beginning to feel helpless and isolated;
He is now aware of “who is in charge”. The fact that ZCTU can announce a stayaway overnight and have such success makes this clear even to him;
He wants to go out in a blaze of glory.
Succession and transition
The round table highlighted the fact that ZANU PF wants to resolve the crisis but its efforts at achieving this goal are undermined by disunity within the party. It also identified three additional groups with a stake in the succession and transition processes: the business component, the hawks and fascists, and the opportunists.
The business component (e.g. Mnangagwa, Chiyangwa, etc.): This group of individuals want change, but a change that is managed – by them. They can make decisions based purely on business sense but they understand the importance of politics in business. They want an interim president beyond Mugabe – as participants said, “they want to have their cake and eat it”. They also see the need to talk to the MDC and to involve it in the transformation process. It is, however, a very dangerous group.
The hawks/fascist group: This group has no constituency of its own. It is a by-product of Mugabe’s favoured politics of bureaucratic clienteles and patronage. Its members are the individuals who know that when Mugabe goes, they also go. They are the ones who have been protected and promoted by him, who have enjoyed many benefits from corruption, the land grab, etc. They include, for example, Jonathan Moyo and the army element. The opportunists: This group sees opportunities and grabs them as they come. They do not have defined constituencies but remodel themselves to suit any dispensation.
They will defend the status quo to the extent that they are included among the beneficiaries, but will cease to do so when they believe change is irreversibly on the horizon. This group includes the Chinamasas, for example, who have been looking for
NCA documents and are talking about constitutional reform, etc. They want to maintain some legitimacy and to keep themselves in power. They will fall whichever way suits them best and will ride on their technical skills.
7
MDC’s position
Current motivation and thinking
It was the impression of participants at the round table that the MDC is thought to have demonstrated enough capacity to mobilize mass action and resistance against the regime and that it is time to initiate talks. The MDC also wants to give the regional initiative a chance;
There is an ongoing debate within the MDC about the value of talks versus mass action; A quick solution is sought, so that life can continue normally. The harassments, trials, etc. have affected people individually;
Mugabe has used violence and harassment to force the MDC into quick solutions;
There are, however, others who are thriving on the crisis. They also do not want to see change – quickly;
Even as the struggle has gone to the streets, there are opportunists who want to seize the opportunity and use it to their own benefit;
Many members of the MDC are in favour of restoring legitimacy through a process of transition. MDC’s expectation of the renewed initiative
This is the first unilateral action by African leadership outside of a set framework.
Thus the expectation is that it will kick-start an irreversible chain of events and processes. This is probably a preparatory process for more actions, activities and steps to come in the resolution of the crisis. One cannot see anything more than the proverbial opening of a door.
The MDC expects this initiative to unlock other processes.
A calendar of future activities and events may emerge. At this stage, the best that can come out of this is an agreement about the road map.
A public acknowledgement could be made by each of the parties involved, domestic and foreign, that there is a social, economic and political crisis in Zimbabwe.
Conclusion
In conclusion, the round table emphasized the need for a clear articulation of the mandate of the present brokers and an acknowledgement of the need for an impartial facilitator. The disillusionment within the MDC that followed the "defeat" in the presidential election is now evaporating. The strength of the opposition within civil society has given the party fresh courage, though it also makes the MDC as much a follower as a leader of public opinion. Its victory in the recent parliamentary by-elections, state-sponsored intimidation and the unbearable consequences of the economic collapse notwithstanding, have convinced many people, especially those in urban areas, that there can be no retreat.
The brutality of the government's tactics has, however, created an enormous class of physical victims who will be persuaded only with difficulty to grant the sort of amnesties
8
and indemnities that are likely to be an integral part of any exit strategy for President
Mugabe.
The dynamics within the ruling party and the opposition are quite unstable at present, and how matters develop remains to be seen as mass action gets under way. The effect of foreign pressures and promises will also be difficult to anticipate or detect in the public arena. What form a domestic compromise might take, and whether an elite pact would be honoured, are obviously considerations central to the immediate outcome of the current political engagement.
9…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Governance in Zimbabwe

...Name Lawrence Surname Mukuku Course Governance in Zimbabwe 1. The negotiations for transition in Zimbabwe were essentially about preserving white interests in Zimbabwe. Discuss in relation with the (i) The Home-Smith Settlement Proposals, (ii)Détente, (ii) The Anglo-American Initiative, (iii)The Geneva Conference and (iv) The Malta Conference During the struggle of Zimbabwe, when the war between the nationalist and the Smith regime was intensifying efforts were made by various countries such as Britain, South Africa, United States of America, Zambia, Botswana and Malawi to find or to implement peaceful ways by which Southern Rhodesia would achieve its independence other than violence. These strategies included the Home Smith proposals, Détente, The Anglo-American Initiative, The Geneva Conference and The Malta Conference. However these failed to achieve independence in Southern Rhodesia as they entrenched the interests of the whites, and failed to gain favour in the eyes of the nationalist. This essay will look at how each of these talks entrenched the interest of the white settlers. Home- Smith settlement proposals 1971-4 The period from 1971-1974 was a period marked by the Anglo- Rhodesian settlement proposals. For the first time during this period Africans became the masters of their own fate. The period also marked the emergence of African National Council by Muzorewa and Zvobgo and the intensification of the armed struggle.......

Words: 2266 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Transitions

... * as a result Purpose * in order that * so that * to that end, to this end * for this purpose Qualification * almost * nearly * probably * never * always * frequently * perhaps * maybe * although Intensification * indeed * to repeat * by all means * of course * doubtedly * certainly * without doubt * yes, no * undoubtedly * in fact * surely * in fact Concession * to be sure * granted * of course, it is true Summary * to summarize * in sum * in brief * to sum up * in short * in summary Conclusion * in conclusion * to conclude * finally Some Common English Transition Words and Phrases Adding Information and not only . . . but also also moreover (more formal) furthermore (more formal) in addition (more formal) | Examples We have seen the movie twice, and now we want to see it again. Not only did my brother break his leg, but he also bruised his rib. My friend speaks Korean and English. She also speaks Chinese. Cheating is dishonest. Moreover, it hinders students from learning. Students should be on time. Furthermore, they must be prepared. You must complete this essay by 5 p.m. In addition, you must do the exercises on page 47. | Giving Examples for example for instance specifically in particular The first (second, another, etc.) example/reason is . . . |......

Words: 1597 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Transition

...grand canyon April 28, 2013 Course: EDU 313 Professor Rick Holbeck I try not to spend so much time transitioning because I have observed that during transition time Johnny tend to become the most distractive and he is more likely to misbehave during this time. I make sure to give the students an advance notice of transition especially for Johnny because many activities he be so engaged in it that when transition comes he does not want stop the activity. So I want to give him as much time to understand that the current activity will be over soon and it is time to move on to another activity or to prep or to lunch. So during transition time I like to reflect on the lesson that we just had. There is a place where the students place their assignments. And I have the students write what they just learned in the journals. This activity is a 10 minute activity that helps them reflect and get ready for the next assignment. As long as I keep going on schedule and routine, Johnny and the other students will know and understand the transition process of the class. (Ormrod 2011) As we know little Johnny suffers from ADHD and as an educator I have to find many activities that interest Johnny and that can keep Johnny attention for a period of time without distracting the other students and himself. With a child that suffers from ADHD I have to keep in mind to make some activities short and always try to keep them active. Lately Johnny behavior is becoming more and more aggressive......

Words: 924 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Eygypt’s Political Transitions. Summarize Political Developments in Post Mubarak Egypt and Identify That Country’s Most Likely Political Trajectory over the Next Five Years. What Do You See as the Major Forces Shaping

...Eygypt’s political transitions. Summarize political developments in post Mubarak Egypt and identify that country’s most likely political trajectory over the next five years. What do you see as the major forces shaping contemporary political development in Egypt? Introduction Dr Jamal al-Din Hamdan, a renowned Egyptian historian, wrote in Volume 1 of his four-volume book Shakhsiyat Misr (Egypt’s Distinctive Character), In Egypt the ruler is regarded as a God until he falls. He is above criticism, until he departs. He is the history and geography [of Egypt] until he is replaced by someone else. He always fancies Egypt as his private property, his hamlet or his larger village. He is the state and the fatherland. Loyalty to the fatherland is synonymous with loyalty to his regime, and to him personally ... He regards any criticism of Egypt as criticism of him personally and, hence, an unforgivable treason. (Najjar, Fauzi 2008) This has been the character of the state of Egypt from its earliest rulers, the pharaohs. In January 25 the foundations of this slumber Tahrir Square and elections For eighteen days, from January 25 to February 11, 2011, Tahrir was occupied in order to take down Mubarak’s regime, and over these weeks, the square witnessed many bloody episodes. On Tuesday, January 25, thousands of Cairenes responded to a Facebook call to follow the model of the Tunisian revolution that had just deposed that country’s president and forced him to flee. Of the......

Words: 2148 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Transition Economy

...Transition The First Ten Years Analysis and Lessons for Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union Transition The First Ten Years Analysis and Lessons for Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union THE WORLD BANK Washington, D.C. © 2002 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank 1818 H Street, NW Washington, DC 20433 All rights reserved. 1 2 3 4 5 05 04 03 02 The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed here are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Board of Executive Directors of the World Bank or the governments they represent. The World Bank cannot guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. The boundaries, colors, denominations, and other information shown on any map in this work do not imply on the part of the World Bank any judgment of the legal status of any territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. Rights and Permissions The material in this work is copyrighted. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or inclusion in any information storage and retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the World Bank. The World Bank encourages dissemination of its work and will normally grant permission promptly. For permission to photocopy or reprint, please send a request with complete information to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc, 222......

Words: 72270 - Pages: 290

Free Essay

Myanmar-Transition

...Myanmar in Transition Opportunities and Challenges Myanmar in Transition Opportunities and Challenges August 2012 © 2012 Asian Development Bank All rights reserved. Published in 2012. Printed in the Philippines. ISBN 978-92-9092-812-6 (Print), 978-92-9092-813-3 (PDF) Publication Stock No. RPT124850-2 Cataloging-in-Publication Data Asian Development Bank Myanmar in transition: Opportunities and challenges. Mandaluyong City, Philippines: Asian Development Bank, 2012. 1. Economic development. 2. Myanmar. I. Asian Development Bank. The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) or its Board of Governors or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this publication and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. By making any designation of or reference to a particular territory or geographic area, or by using the term “country” in this document, ADB does not intend to make any judgments as to the legal or other status of any territory or area. ADB encourages printing or copying information exclusively for personal and noncommercial use with proper acknowledgment of ADB. Users are restricted from reselling, redistributing, or creating derivative works for commercial purposes without the express, written consent of ADB. In this report, “$” refers to US dollars unless otherwise specified. Asian......

Words: 5104 - Pages: 21

Free Essay

Zimbabwe

...Final Presentation Paper Zimbabwe official name is the Republic of Zimbabwe with Harare being the Capital with a population of 13,097,000 in 2013.However the life expectancy at birth is 48 years for men and 47.1 years for women in 2010. Zimbabwe is located in southern Africa. It is southwest and west of Botswana, North by Zambia and on the Northeast and East by Mozambique. The highest point in Zimbabwe is at Mount Inyangai, which is at 8,504 feet, and the lowest point is at 600 feet. The mountains comprise about 25 percent of the country’s total area. About two-fifths of the total population lives in urban centers in Harare or Bulawayo There is a large number of males of working age, leaving an excess number of older people, children and women in rural areas. Half of the black households are partly or wholly dependent on incomes earned in the wage economy. This is unfortunate because of the economy’s decline in the 1990s. A major part of the decline was due to the relocation of farmland from white to black Zimbabweans in the 1990s to 2002. Additionally when Zimbabwe intervened with the Democratic of Congo Civil War this also cost the country hundreds of millions of dollars. Leading to inflation and record high rates of unemployment. Since then, Zimbabwe has made some major changes in their government. As of 2013, there is a new constitution. The president has to be elected into office with a five-year term and a change to serve up to two terms. Two vice presidents......

Words: 907 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Albinism in Zimbabwe

...הדעת, וגם אי אפשר, להתעלם מתפקידם המהותי של מרפאים מסורתיים בקהילות המשמרות מסורות תרבותיות מקומיות. מרפאים מסורתיים הם חשובים ובלתי נפרדים מכלל תחומי הרפואה, וחשיבותם ברפואת העיניים וברפואת העור היא משמעותית ביותר. שני אלו הינם תחומי הרפואה הרלוונטיים ביותר בנוגע ללבקנות. זאת בשל הפגיעה העמוקה בראייה ובעור בקרב אנשים החווים מחסור בפיגמנטים, כפי שמתרחש בלבקנות. נפרט בהרחבה אודות הלקות בפרק הבא. 
 לצד הרפואה המסורתית, שירותי הבריאות הפועלים בשיטה הקונוונציונלית (המערבית), הם נפוצים מאוד בזימבבואה. גופים אלו מספקים מענה רפואי במגוון תחומים, ביניהם הארגון ZIMA Zimbabwe Medical Association)), לו כ- 800 רופאים מקצועיים ברחבי המדינה. בנוסף, הפיקוח הרפואי של MCAZ- (Medicines Control Authority of  Zimbabwe) ועוד בתי ספר של הממשלה להכשרות רפואיות אשר מספקים מקומות עבודה לתלמידיהם ומבקשים לקדם את תחום המודעות לבריאות במדינה. אך קיים גם סיוע נרחב של ארגונים בין לאומיים המגיעים להעניק שירותים רפואיים לאוכלוסיה בזימבבואה. למשל, Zimbabwe Medical Project שהוא ארגון אמריקאי המשלב רופאים מארצות הברית יחד עם רופאים מקומיים, ועוסק בכל תחומי הרפואה. על אף שהן הרפואה המערבית והן הרפואה המסורתית משחקות תפקיד מרכזי בתחום הבריאות בזימבבואה, בשני התחומים העיקריים הנוגעים בלבקנות (ראייה ועור), אכן קיימת עדיפות לשיטת רפואה מסוימת; ניכר כי רפואת העור היא מסורתית בעיקרה ולרוב מטופלת באמצעות צמחי מרפא וחומרים טבעיים. אולם, רפואת העיניים מושרשת ויציבה במוסדות בריאות ממשלתיים או בגופי רפואה של רפואה מערבית ורק לעיתים ובחלק מאיזורי הארץ, נעזרים הרופאים הקונוונציונלים בסיועם של המרפאים המסורתיים. ניכר......

Words: 2828 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Zimbabwe

...Management An In-Depth Analysis of Zimbabwe Class: BSC15D Submitted by: 6th August 2011 Table of Contents | 1.0: Introduction ……........................................................................................................................... | 2.0: Findings………………......................................................................................................................2.1: Political Philosophy and Ideology …………………………………………………………………………2.2: Economic Philosophy and Ideology ……………………………………………………………………….2.3: Geographic Philosophy and Ideology……………………………………………………………………..2.4: History Philosophy and Ideology ………………………………………………………………………….2.5: Language Philosophy and Ideology ……………………………………………………………………….2.6: Religion Philosophy and Ideology …………………………………………………………………………2.7: Social Structure Philosophy and Ideology …………………………………………………………….. | 3.0: Analysis…………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………44.0: Implication........................................................................................................................4 | 5.0: Conclusion...............................................................................................................4 | 6.0: Referencing.................................................................................................................................5 | | | 1.0 Introduction 2.1 Political Philosophy and Ideology Zimbabwe’s current political type is parliamentary......

Words: 1558 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Press Freedom in Africa: Challenges and Prospects

...nmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmrtyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnm Press Freedom in Africa: Challenges and Prospects COMM 630 (Spring 2009) By Jacob Dankasa | Press freedom in Africa: Causes and challenges Introduction Press freedom is pivotal to effective nation building and democratization process. It is “the right or ability of practitioners to express their views, opinions or report events as they are without necessarily seeking approval from any person(s) and without being subjected to any form of intimidation, molestation persecution or harassment” (Ojo, 2003). Africa is one continent where press freedom has suffered repressiveness over the years. As Kofi Annan, former UN secretary lamented, “For doing their indispensable work, many journalists are persecuted, attacked, imprisoned and murdered,” (Annan, as quoted by Fleshman, 2005). In 2006,...

Words: 2715 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

A History of Zimbabwe

...Free Download A History Of Zimbabwe Book A History Of Zimbabwe is writen by Alois S. Mlambo in English language. Release on 2014-04-07, this book has 304 page count that consist of valuable information with lovely reading experience. The book was publish by Cambridge University Press, it is one of best history book genre that gave you everything love about reading. You can find A History Of Zimbabwe book with ISBN 9781107021709. The first single-volume history of Zimbabwe with detailed coverage from pre-colonial times to the present, this book examines Zimbabwe's pre-colonial, colonial and postcolonial social, economic and political history and relates historical factors and trends to recent developments in the country. Zimbabwe is a country with a rich history, dating from the early San hunter-gatherer societies. The arrival of British imperial rule in 1890 impacted the country tremendously, as the European rulers exploited Zimbabwe's resources, giving rise to a movement of African nationalism and demands for independence. This culminated in the armed conflict of the 1960s and 1970s and independence in 1980. The 1990s were marked by economic decline and the rise of opposition politics. In 1999, Mugabe embarked on a violent land reform program that plunged the nation's economy into a downward spiral, with political violence and human rights violations making Zimbabwe an international pariah state. This book will be useful to those studying Zimbabwean history and those......

Words: 1086 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Transition

...the, …. position This critique, unfortunately, implies a singular cause of, … This point is also sustained by the work of, … Thirdly, … This counter argument is supported by evidence from, … The use of the term, … Therefore, … There appears then to be an acceleration in the growth of There is also, however, a further point to be considered. These technological developments have greatly increased the growth in, … Thus, … To be able to understand, … Undoubtedly, … While such failures must not be discounted, … there were in comparison small, when compared Whilst the discussion in the preceding paragraph, … Whether crime rates were actually lower at this time continues to be a matter of debate. Evidence from… SOME USEFUL TRANSITIONS (modified from Diana Hacker, A Writer's Reference) To show addition:  again, and, also, besides, equally important, first (second, etc.), further, furthermore, in addition, in the first place, moreover, next, too To give examples:  for example, for instance, in fact, specifically, that is, to illustrate To compare:  also, in the same manner, likewise, similarly To contrast:  although, and yet, at the same time, but, despite, even though, however, in contrast, in spite of, nevertheless, on the contrary, on the other hand, still, though, yet To summarize or conclude:  all in all, in conclusion, in other words, in short, in summary, on the whole, that is, therefore, to sum up To show time:  after, afterward, as, as long as,......

Words: 1538 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Underdevelopment in Zimbabwe

...Underdevelopment: Zimbabwe In the modern world it has become very common to classify countries in one of two categories: developed, and underdeveloped. One country, which is still considered to be underdeveloped, is Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe is located in south-eastern Africa, and is bordered by five different countries leaving no access to the Indian coast. Zimbabwe does however have access to both the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers, which feed into the Indian Ocean, though neither is necessarily easily navigable by boat. There is an abundance of minerals in Zimbabwe, and also a respectable amount of commercial agriculture, however the economy has yet to progress to its full potential. This has much to do with the political turbulence that the country has experienced in the past thirty years, but is affected more so by the social inequality that has predominated for much of its history. Even with the social and political setbacks that Zimbabwe has been forced to face, the economy has done decently, but that has failed to alleviate many of the symptoms of underdevelopment that are still painfully apparent.  Underdevelopment may occur in various forms and have various causes, but the symptoms of underdevelopment are easily distinguishable. The most easily recognizable symptoms of underdevelopment are: problematic population growth, high birth and death rates, high infant mortality rates, and short life expectancies. Disease, famine, starvation, and malnutrition are also all red flags......

Words: 1675 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Rule of Law in Zimbabwe

...The Rule of Law in Zimbabwe Robert Mugabe was elected into power in Zimbabwe in 1980, the year Zimbabwe was granted independence from Britain. “Unfortunately, what has happened since 2001 is a complete collapse of the rule of law, and it simply has been replaced by this dictatorial regime of Robert Mugabe," says Mark Ellis, the executive director of the International Bar Association. Once considered Africa’s most sophisticated and developing legal communities, political turmoil in turn caused lawyers and judges to flee the country. The country's prisons swelled and the pre-trial detention population reached great heights .Torture became widely accepted as a legitimate tool for police investigation and judicial processes. A total system collapse resulted in a humanitarian for Zimbabwe. In 2001 the International Bar associated sent lawyers to speak with President Robert Mugabe and government officials. This was because a spate in violence had erupted and there were complaints of harassment and the Rule of Law slowly becoming “Mugabe’s Law”. The IBA heard that judges were being intimidated and sometimes forced to retire, court orders weren’t being enforced by the police or government, journalists had been arrested, jailed and tortured, there were bans on the media, strikes and protests were outlawed, and the military and Central Intelligence Organisation (CIO) were given rights to arrest and detain civilians. At least two journalists have been charged under the Law and......

Words: 478 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Transitions

...TRANSISI DALAM PERUBAHAN ( Transitions) A. PENDAHULUAN Setiap orang pasti pernah mengalami suatu peristiwa yang telah membawa suatu perubahan penting didalam kehidupannya. Peristiwa itu bisa berupa antara lain; kehilangan orang yg dikasihi, perubahan pekerjaan, karir, atau keuangan, menurunnya kesehatan fisik, perubahan tempat tinggal, perubahan dlm rumah tangga ( menikah, punya anak ), dll. Roma 8:28; Kita tahu sekarang, bahwa Allah turut bekerja dalam segala sesuatu untuk mendatangkan kebaikan bagi mereka yang mengasihi Dia, yaitu bagi mereka yang terpanggil sesuai dengan rencana Allah. Dari ayat tsb diatas kita tahu bahwa Allah dapat memakai semua perubahan yg terjadi didalam hidup kita untuk kebaikkan kita. Sekalipun itu adalah janji Allah, tapi ada bagian Allah dan ada bagian kita manusia. Bagian kita adalah bekerja sama dengan Allah agar perubahan apapun yg menimpa hidup kita, kita tetap berada dalam rencana Allah untuk membentuk kita serupa dng Kristus dan namaNya tetap dipermuliakan lewat perubahan tsb. Dalam hal ini bagaimana respons kita terhadap perubahan itu sangatlah penting. Didalam setiap perubahan yg terjadi selalu akan dibarengi oleh proses transisi ( terjadi didalam pribadi orang yg mengalami perubahan tsb ), yg merupakan respons terhadap perubahan tsb. Perubahan ( change ) sifatnya external dan situasional; menikah, dapat pekerjaan baru, dipecat, dapat anak, ditinggal oleh orang yg dikasihi, dll. ...

Words: 1321 - Pages: 6