Free Essay

Other Backward Classes

In: Social Issues

Submitted By robinhood66
Words 1474
Pages 6

The term backward casses has not been defined properly,either by the sociologists or by the Constitutio-makers.The backward classes are a large mixed category of persons with boundaries that are both unclear and elastic.They seem to comprise roughly one-third of the toatal population of the country.They consist of three main categories-the scheduled castes,the scheduled tribes and the other backward classes.The scheduled castes and scheduled tribes are comparatively better defined and they form roughly 22% of the total population according to the 1971 census.The other backward classes is a residual category.Their position is highly ambigous and it is not possible t give an exact statemen of their numbers.

Defintion of other backward classes

Though the term backward classes is popularly used by sociologists.It is not defined properly.Still for our purpose of study,we may define it in the following way: 1)Justice K. Subba Rao,former chief justice of india,defined “backward classes” as—“an ascertainable and identifiable group of persons based on caste,religion,race,language,occupation and such others,with definite characteristics of backwardness in various aspects of human existence-social,cultural,economic,political and such others”. 2)We can generally define backward classes as those social groups or classes or castes which are characterise by low leteracy and lack of education,poverty,exploitation of labour,non-representation in services and untouchability. 3)In simple words,the term backward classes can be defined as a social category which consists of all the socially,educationally,economically and politically backward groups,castes and tribes.

“OBC” means “other backward castes.” This is a legal term; it was used early in the Mandal Commission report, issued in 1980, which included recommendations for reservation of seats for OBCs. These were the castes between the three “higher” varnas and the Dalits (Scheduled Castes) and Adivasis (Scheduled Tribes), and amount to about 50% of the Indian population. They were previously considered “shudras” under the traditional varna (caste) system, that is those who were the lowest of the “clean” castes. During the colonial period they were known as “NonBrahmans” and in several parts of India – especially in the Marathi- and Tamil-speaking areas, they mounted militant movements challenging Brahmanism. In most of northern India, in contrast, movements were more Sanskritized, with the Yadavas encouraged to identify with Krishna and think of themselves as of the lineage of Krishna, while the Kurmis (peasants) were taught to identify with Rama. There is a great hierarchy among the OBCs. The group considering themselves “highest” are the mainly peasant castes (Kurmis in north India, Kunbis in Maharashtra, Vellalas in south India, etc) and the herding (Yadavas, Dhangars, Korbis) and gardening (Malis, Sainis) communities. Ranging below these are the various artisan and service groups – goldsmiths, blacksmiths, barbers, washermen etc. This linkage of caste with profession is unique to the Indian caste system. Ambedkar had described caste as a “graded hierarchy” with a ascending ladder of status and a descending degree of contempt; Phule had talked of how the “ignorant Kunbi looked down on the ignorant Mahar, the ignorant Mahar scorned the ignorant Mang” – these were expressions of this hierarchy of caste, in which every group tried to claim a higher status than another. Kancha Ilaiah has described Dalits and OBCs as the “productive castes” – in contrast to the three highest varnas (Brahmans, Ksatriyas or rulers and Vaishyas or banias/ merchants) who are exploiters living off the proceeds of their labour. The term “bahujan” meaning “majority people” is also often used for these groups.

What is the Percentage of OBCs in the Population?
The Mandal Commission estimated their percentage (based on extrapolations from the 1931 Census, which was the last Census to ask questions of caste) at 52%. Later elites have preferred to use the data from surveys, which give a much lower percentage. But the most efficient surveys (the National Sample Surveys) are fallacious – because they rely on self-identification, and many OBC groups lack the consciousness of benefits, or don’t find enough benefits, or prefer not to use a stigmatized “backward” identity. Between the 1999 and 2004 NSS surveys there was a rise in the percentage of OBCs, showing the increase in consciousness; we might expect a “rise” in further surveys. It is best to use the Mandal Commission data.
How does the Contemporary Economic Situation Affect OBCs?
Traditionally the jajmani system (Balutedari in Maharashtra) in which various OBC artisan castes performed their duties and received a share of the village harvest is dying away. Many of the old occupations are gone, replaced by modern forms; e.g. the Mang rope-making is heavily affected by the availability of plastic ropes. Few OBC artisan castes now perform their traditional occupations. However, a major factor in brahmanic domination of the caste system from the beginning has been to ban the “shudra” castes from receiving education. The OBC groups are highly lacking in education, especially in the quality English education which has led to good jobs in services or the organized sector. Most therefore are caught as manual labourers in the low-paid, disregarded “unorganized” sector. If not agriculture labour, they do other menial work, hauling bricks, working on construction sites, wandering here and there as migrants. A few from the farming communities have benefited from the modernization of agriculture and have become rich capitalist farmers. These aspire to all the ideology and material benefits of brahmanisation, and seek to spread this among the economically poorer of their own groups. This provides a material base for brahmanisation among the OBCs. Education is still a major problem for OBCs, especially in the rural areas. The education they get is overwhelmingly of poor quality, in the vernacular (and in a brahmanized version of the vernacular); and all the promises of providing compulsory universal primary education have remained on paper. While OBC groups such as Marathas are now producing writers of novels and poetry, almost all their parents were illiterate. Because of lack of education, especially English education, OBCs remain far behind Dalits in modern technology such as use of internet, blogs, egroups etc.

Constitutional Remedies for Other Backward Classes
To bring all those who are considered the socially and economically backward on par with the rest of the society, it is a must that they should be assisted in all possible ways. Education which can accelerate amongst them the process not only of conscientisation but also of becoming economically independent should be made accessible to everybody. Government of India describes OBC as "socially and educationally backward classes", and government is enjoined to ensure their social and educational development.
Besides the SCs and STs, there exists a huge proportion of people who are identified as socially and educationally backward classes. Talk of implementing similar welfare measures to this section (OBC) has ignited resentment especially among the high castes. However, it is the constitutional obligation of the government under Articles 340(1). 340(2) and 16(4) to promote the welfare of the OBCs.
Steps taken:
Article 340(1) gives presidential power for appointing commission to label communities as OBCs.
Article 340(2) appointed commission will make needs assessment and take necessary actions.
Article 15(4) states are empowered to take any special initiative for betterment of the OBCs.
In 1953, first commission was constituted. They were responsible fordetermination of the criteria for the identification of OBCs, investigation of the conditions of these people, make suitable policies for their wellbeing.
The commission did the following:
1. They determined the criteria on the basis of: a) relative low caste position, b) relatively low educational status, c) inadequate representation in decision making bodies and economic participation.
2. The listed backward communities.
3. Recommended for a census based data on backwardness, treatment of women as backward, and reservation up to 70 percent of seats for backward groups.
In 1979, the Mandal Commission was set up, with similar task. They did the following:
1. Used social, educational and economic criteria.
2. Used social position, manual labour activities, early age at marriage, above state average women participation in labour activities as social criteria.
3. Used school attendance, drop out rate, below state matriculation rate as educational criteria.
4. Used possession of asset per family, kuchha house inhabitation, distance from source of drinking water, loaning behaviour at least 25 percent negatively higher than state average as economic criteria.
Ramiah (1992) noted the debate regarding OBC is far from resolved. It is important to note that with provisions for betterment of the social backward classes India’s nation building process would be benefited. With more participation of people from weaker section we can really think of a country having policy which benefits all. However, it is important to do periodic evaluation of the processes through which we visualise benefits for OBC people.…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Registering for Classes

...students. Choosing what classes to take in high school was easy, but in college, there are hundreds, even thousands, of classes to choose from. Instead of the usual block schedule of classes from morning until afternoon, in college, you are given the freedom to pick and choose the time of each class. With such a wide range of classes and class times, one would think registering for college classes would be quick and simple. Unfortunately, there are several obstacles that interfere with the registration process. The past two times I have registered for classes, I have encountered such obstacles and have not been able to get every class at the time I wanted. The main reasons were: 1) I am a freshman; 2) I am not an athlete; and 3) By the time I am able to register for classes, many of the classes I planned on taking are either closed or full. Staying on top of the registration process by planning ahead will help reduce some of the stress. First, students should figure out the registration date to sign up for classes at Northwood University. This date is assigned by the Academic Advisors in the Church Building. All students are assigned a specific time and date to register online via Time assignments are given according to seniority with upper classman receiving an earlier registration opportunity. Student athletes and students in Northwood’s honor program also reap the benefit of an early registration. Since freshmen pick their classes last, by the time......

Words: 556 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...achieving an above average passing grade in all my classes, to finish all written assignments on time, accomplish my associates, bachelor and continue on completing a master degree. All this leads back to planning ahead and have a successful outcome. I have worked in different organizations all dealing with public. I worked in Macys as a sales representative, Health and Hospital as an intake consultant and I’m currently working for Harlem hospital also an intake consultant. I have provided customer service in all my jobs and I learned that if I provide excellent customer service the customer always comes back or they recommend a friend to me. Customer service is one of the key components to have a successful career in business. I have a great passion for food and I dream of having a restaurant someday. Having served the public with amazing customer service can help me in planning a future business in the restaurant or event industry. All of my professional experiences are a stepping stone on becoming a successful hospitable professional. I love learning and trying new things and I decide if I like it or not. I am fluent in Spanish and I’m currently learning Italian. I also love to read fiction, non-fiction, and food magazines. I believe that knowledge is power. It gives me a clear and logical mind to approach a challenge and finding the solution to a problem. I am self-motivated and I enjoy helping and motivate others. I enjoy watching the food network.......

Words: 460 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


...individual to make his journey a memorable one. Airline companies are constantly upgrading with technology and other services for competing in this ever-growing airline industry. Malaysian airlines is one of the prestigious passenger airline carrier owned and run by the government of Malaysia also known as MAS in short. Malaysian airlines operates in more than 60 destinations around the world. Product and Experience Analysis: Malaysia Airways is one of the mid cost airline company and operates from the homeland base Kuala Lumpur. Malaysian airlines has established itself in the South East Asia region and travelling around the world. Malaysian airlines is one of the few airlines to be awarded with the 5 star airline status by Skytrax. Malaysian airlines also operates 2 airline subsidiaries Firefly and MASwings which operate internally within Malaysia. Other services offered by MAS include things like architectural operation, resort management, catering, digital booking companies, transportation and warehousing companies. MAS is an international carrier operating in 117 domestic destinations and 115 international routes in six continents. MAS offers 3 different classes first, business and economy class to suit the customer needs and compared to other 5 star airlines the prices offered by Malaysian airlines are way cheaper and they are highly competing with the other low cost airlines and offer exceptional products and service at cheaper rates (Baharom, 2002). Malaysian......

Words: 1839 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Driving Backwards

...Driving Backwards in a neighborhood For my violation of the folkway I choose to drive backwards in my neighborhood. This past Sunday I decided to violate this folkway, the face reactions I received were quite humorous. Some ignored which was pretty acceptable on account of mid-terms, but the majority stared followed by questioning and maybe laughter. Understanding my violation how could you blame them, driving backwards in a neighborhood is not only a driving folkway it is also dangerous to myself as well as my fellow neighbors. As childern we grew up learning to speak a certain language or dress a certain way. When natural motor skills come in to play such as walking and running heading in the forward motion is a judgment of what ought to be. I got in a car and pressed my foot on the brake, put the car in reverse and went flying backwards. As I was driving in reverse I simultaneously looked over my shoulder to see where I was going, not doing so may have caused me to trip over a curb with the ending result not being very positive. I soon realized that screaming "woah" would not make the car stop I kept going. I was driving fowards and backwards and I passed my house twice and drove to the end of my street in that same fashion. After pulling into another neighbor’s driveway, I went back down the street in reverse and did so twice more before I realized that my next-door neighbor was standing on his porch watching me. I learned one thing from our class experiment...

Words: 708 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Traditional Classes Versus Online Classes

...Traditional classes are more common in todays society, but the popularity of online classes are changing some people's thoughts on an online class environment. Even though traditional classes are more common than online classes what are the similarities and the differences between the two. Taking courses over the internet is a convenient way of completing coursework at a college or university from the comfort of your home. Although you do not attend classes on a physical campus, there are, in fact, many similarities between online classes and traditional classes. Therefore, when considering whether to complete coursework online or in a traditional setting, take these similarities and differences into consideration. One of the things that people ask about most is assignments. Whether you choose to attend classes online or in a traditional physical setting, you will be assigned homework to complete. Like traditional courses, expect to do a series of reading and writing assignments relevant to the course you are enrolled in. Other assignment possibilities include watching documentaries or relevant movies that your instructor adds to the course's lesson plan. Another similarity between online and traditional courses is the requirement that you use course text books to prepare for your reading and writing assignments. Even though a course may be taken online, text books are still central to learning relevant information. Some courses, however, may allow you to purchase......

Words: 840 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Response Paper to Looking Backward

...Looking Backward (1887) | Response Paper | This Response paper is of Edward Bellamy’s Novel Looking Backward where he has a vision of the future through the life of Julian West. | David Kaliwata David Kaliwata David Kaliwata Isaac Bolder: History & Society Primary Response Paper: Looking Backward 11/4/2013 Edward Bellamy’s Looking Backward (2000-1887) When Edward Bellamy wrote his book Looking Backward (1887), he wasn’t trying to be part of the political scene but to merely write a fantasy novel. What came after the publication of his novel was the creation of more than 160 Nationalist-clubs, most notably Clubs that were advocating women suffrage. Edward Bellamy was seen by some as a male feminist who exfoliated the capitalist industrial movement of that time and wanted to paint a picture of a socialist utopia where everything was state owned and equally distributed. His book was not intended to be a blueprint for a political movement. I have to note that I did not read the book but various essays on the book and its impact on women suffrage. I feel that the book was written at a crucial time and although it wasn’t asking questions, it sparked a new way of thinking how society should be run. I believe we are all made equal and that everyone has a role in the development, upkeep and sustainability of society. Edward Bellamy’s had the same idea in mind in terms of equal distribution of labor and benefits. I will discuss what women suffrage is and the......

Words: 962 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Online Classes vs Traditional Classes

...Have you ever taken an online class? Many people are choosing online classes because of the benefits it offers. However, a traditional class still giving you a lot of opportunities that any online class will give. there are a lot of differences between an online class and a traditional class. [indent] Online classes are a fantastic possibility for those who cannot travel to college. In addition, online classes are wonderful for people with disabilities ro diseases such as dyslexia. It's also a good option for women with children that can't spend a lot of time traveling and being in a traditional class. Even though people connecting to a computer can't know other students' ideas ro share their ideas,at least they can contact their professor and ask questions. Also they have the benefit of stopping and rewining the lecture when they do not understand something. For example, my friend Gisselle was taking an online class, and she didn't understand a concept, so she stopped the lesson, took a break and then sit down again. It was how she could get it. Online classes can be awesome, but traditional classes also have their good points. [/indent]Many colleges and universities have a campus. If for some reason the students can't travel every day to the college, they have the choice of staying on the campus for a while and not spending money on gasoline. Even though campuses are a little expensive, it's a good option for young people that do not have a lot of responsibilities with......

Words: 396 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Online Classes vs Campus Classes

...ONLINE CLASSES VS CAMPUS CLASSES 1 Online Classes Vs Campus Classes Diablo Sparks Everest University Online Professor Brooks Composition 1-100 December 21, 2014 ONLINE CLASSES VS CAMPUS CLASSES 2 Choosing a college is never easy, but before picking school you want to attend, you must first decide whether you want to pursue an education at an online university or a traditional college. The end result is the same, a diploma that will help you find a job in your field, but the learning environment is very different between the two platforms. It is important to understand key differences between online learning and traditional classes before deciding on the right path for you. From my experiences online classes are more convenient, but campus classes makes the resources more accessible, as well as there is better class participation. Convenience in scheduling is very important when making the choice of an online education, or one that’s more traditional. Every online class is run differently, but in most cases, it is much easier to schedule your classes around the rest of your day when you go to school virtually. Campus-based courses require that you attend class a certain number of times every week, at specific times. That might mean changing your work schedule or having to hire a babysitter. Online classes......

Words: 597 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Understanding Backward Design

...Curriculum Development Using Understanding by Backward Design Some of the challenges of developing meaningful curriculum is that the content has to promote student understanding, retention, and generalization. (Amy Childre, 2009) There is no argument that curriculum development is not a single process, where one type of development fits all. A curriculum designers and educators can look at the works of Ralph W. Tyler, Decker Walker, and Elliott W. Eisner and many others to establish a way of developing curriculum. It is understood that one type of curriculum development or template is not the best approach. It takes the ideas of many theories to create the best possible curriculum. Tyler’s Rationale is still considered the primary template of curriculum development. (Marsh, 2003) However instructional designers and teachers know the tides of curriculum are in a continuous state of change, especially now. So is Tyler’s Rationale and other theorizers’ designs the best to use when developing and teaching curriculum? Is the current means of curriculum furthering student learning, retention, and generalization? Today’s curriculum developers and teachers need to look past traditional means, they need to look beyond textbooks and other curriculum influences when creating meaningful curriculum. Understanding by Design (UbD) looks at a new way of establishing curriculum starting with outcomes first. It looks to achieve the same goals as traditional processes but utilizes a reverse......

Words: 2023 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Was Russia a Backward Power?

...Was Russia a Backward power? In the end of the 19th century, Russia was part of Europe´s five Great Powers, along with Britain, France, Germany and Austria-Hungary. It was a huge state that dominated Eastern Europe and had an important role in European International relations. Although it seemed as Russia was a prosperous country, many historians state that it was a backward power at this period of time, as the Tsarist state had many weaknesses, such as political problems, social debilities or economic difficulties. To begin with, there was autocracy, which meant that one person, the Tsar, governed the whole state. He was regarded as the absolute ruler, by divine right. There were three official bodies, which helped rule the Tsar: The Imperial council, The Cabinet of Ministers and The senate. Even though this might seem as advancement, all three bodies were chosen by the tsar, and unless the tsar approved it before, they were unable to take any action. This autocracy showed how Russia was politically behind compared to other European nations, as all major western-European countries had some sort of democratic aspects in their government. An important fact in Russian politics at this time was that the few Russian tsars who had been reformers, modernised Russia in some ways, but did nothing about politics, as all of them believed in the convenience of autocracy. Some clear examples of Russia´s political backwardness were: It had no parliament, political parties had......

Words: 856 - Pages: 4

Free Essay


...Definition of Race Race is a group of people of common ancestry, distinguished from others by physical characteristics, such as hair type, the color of eyes and skin. Race as a social construction is changing as time goes on. Our daily lives are affected by race whether we are aware of it or not. We can see all over the world that race has affected various domains of our lives. From the types of jobs we have the amount of money we make, the kinds of friends we keep, the food we eat and even the schools we will attend. The entire foundation of race is constructed on a platform based on the color of people’s skin. The construction of social reality is based on social groups and the agreements and disagreements that are made based on the acceptance of certain constructions when it comes to our existence. There is nothing biologically real about race. I have learned that that there is no certain identification of race that exists from our collective agreements, acceptance, and positions other than our existing with one another. Race is a social construction that has real consequences and effects. Race shapes the way we view ourselves and those around us. We shouldn’t have an objective knowledge about race. We can know what race is and how it works being aware that regardless of the various shifts in the meaning of race that they have occurred through history and going to occur geographically but this should not lead to skepticism and the destruction of positive social......

Words: 1379 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Traditina Classes vs.Online Classes

...| Traditional Classes vs. Online Classes | /14 | | The Internet has created a revolution in every area of modern life. Education is no exception, and now there are not only traditional classes as we usually learn but also online classes. These two educational kinds have the same goal: to educate and train students to have good skills in there learning. Students accomplish them differently with online learning, gaining time flexibility but without personal interaction. Starting with scheduling between an online class and a traditional class is the time. Taking traditional classes requires the student to set up a schedule and show up for classes. This takes away from family and work. Comparing online classes, there is no set time established for when and where to study as long as a computer and Internet access is available. Courses are accessible from any computer, and usually twenty-four hours a day. In contrast, with a traditional class, students must physically go to class every day, they have a schedule and set times are established. In general, their time is not as flexible as an online class. Every online class is run differently, but in most cases, it is much easier to schedule classes around the rest of the day when to go to school virtually. This provides flexibility for the student to be able to work toward their degree on their own time, at your own pace. Campus-based courses require that students attend class a certain number of times every......

Words: 755 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Argument with Classes

...enrolling in classes that will not benefit them in there job or life after graduation. I am enlisting the help of everyone in the world who has attended or want to attend a college of there choice in helping me cut cost and get a better education. The purpose of us binding together and you reading this article is the hope we can make a change for the future. We need to get them to quit slapping us with bills for classes that will do nothing for us in the long or short term of our life. If they could show us or anyone could say the classes we took that we believe have a reason to be there I would gladly have you tell us how it has helped you in the field you are in and show us that we are all mistaken. I hope to show curriculum designers the error of their ways so they will give us more class on what we need to succeed in life and not pointless classes that will do nothing for us. We are having to do english, math and physics classes that we will never use. If your path in life takes you into them then more power to you. The parts of this we are going to use for the remainder of our lives for our profession could be put in a thimble. We have all been victim of fraud for being told we need these classes to go into this field of study and it all comes down to they just want the extra money from us for a class that doesn’t cost them anything but a teachers salary. A couple student at most colleges can pay the salary of said teacher so all the other students......

Words: 658 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Crowded Classes

...CROWDED CLASSES It is known by most people that an avarege number of students in a normal class should be about 20-30. In fact it is also known that in many scholls class size usually are over that number. In overcrowded classes, there are too many student. In this type of classes it is so clear to everyone that the teachers don’t know very well and wouldn’t be interested in their students Although some people say crowded class size positively contributes to classroom environment, the researchs show that overcrowded classes cause falling in quality of education. More and more, when parents’ expectations is taken notice the difference between the expectation-the result grows. Because the teachers sufficently can’t take care of their problems. Many experst say that students mostly try to obtain their teachers admiration. It is quite obvious that it is not possible to get someones apprecition if you are ignored. The teachers also aren’t acquainted what they do after the class in their free times. Because teachers don’t have plenty of time to find out whatever their students do or wherever they go after the school. However it is so important to student who is in his adolescent to get a healty relationship with his teachers and school. Other wise the way a student would probably choose takes him away from educational activities. In addition to that, in crowded classes lack of dicipline can easily occur. Cause of that is usually depletion of......

Words: 444 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Online Classes vs Traditional Classes

...Online Classes versus Traditional Classes Technology and education has given students many choices in how they obtain their education such as online classes. There have been numerous discussions recently about the success of online learning. The success of the online classes versus traditional classes is based upon the uniqueness of each individual way of learning. Online classes and traditional classes provide flexibility, direct communication and course materials. Studies have shown that online classes can be successful and that on average most students perform better than being in a traditional classroom. The argument of online classes and traditional classes; which is better than the other has many exceptional differences. One is the discussion of how does a person learn: is he a visual, auditory or kinesthetic learner? A visual leaner needs written materials, exercises and graphics. An auditory learner has to hear it, repeat it and needs to have a discussion. A kinesthetic learner needs real life simulations, hands on demonstration and needs to see how the principle works. Visual learners and kinesthetic learners most likely would be more successful in online courses because of the atmosphere it provides. Auditory learners would need to have traditional classes which would provide the best learning opportunity for their learning style. There are cases that individuals do not know how they learn best; an assessment should be given in the situation. The......

Words: 953 - Pages: 4