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International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology Vol. 29, April, 2011

A Mutual Construction for IDS Using GA
S. Selvakani Kandeeban Professor and Head, MCA Department, Francis Xavier Engineering College, Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu, India sselvakani@hotmail.com R. S. Rajesh Reader, Department of CSE, Manonmanium Sundaranar University,, Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu, India rs_rajesh@yahoo.co.in Abstract
A variety of intrusion prevention techniques, such as user authentication using passwords, avoidance of programming errors and information protection, has been used to protect computer systems. However information prevention alone is not sufficient to protect our systems as those systems become even more complex with the rapid growth and expansion of Internet technology and local network systems. Moreover, programming errors, firewall configuration errors and ambiguous or undefined security policies add to the system’s complexity. An Intrusion Detection system (IDS) is therefore needed as another layer to protect computer systems. The IDS is one of the most important techniques of information dynamic security technology. It is defined as a process of monitoring the events occurring in a computer system or network and analyzing them to differentiate between normal activities of the system and behaviors that can be classified as suspicious or intrusive. Current Intrusion Detection Systems have several known shortcomings, such as low accuracy (registering high False Positives and False Negatives); low real-time performance (processing a large amount of traffic in real time); limited scalability (storing a large number of user profiles and attack signatures); an inability to detect new attacks (recognizing new attacks when they are launched for the first time); and weak system reactive capabilities (efficiency of response). This makes the area of IDS an attractive research field. In recent years, researchers have investigated techniques such as artificial intelligence, autonomous agents and distributed systems for detecting intrusion in network environments. In this work we have realized an Intrusion Detection System based on Genetic algorithm (GA) approach. For evolving and testing new rules for intrusion detection system the KDD99Cup training and testing dataset were used. Keywords Anomaly detection, Genetic Algorithm, KDD 99 Cup Set, False Positives.

1. Introduction
Intrusion detection is one of the most challenging problems in network security Detection of attacks on a particular network is not an easy task. In this paper, we present a collaborative architecture for Intrusion detection system using Genetic algorithm. IDS is a system that can be placed in a network to stop and detect network intrusions and anomalies. After the emergence of computer networks and especially the internet, the communication of data and the exchange of information have become quite easy and fast. The easy access and exchange of information over the network brings the question of how to

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International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology Vol. 29, April, 2011

ensure the security of the information that is stored or exchanged against attacks by the intruders. There are two kinds of intruders; external intruders and internal intruders. External intruder are unauthorized users that enter the system and make disastrous changes in the system or use the network resources. On the other hand, an internal intruder is the one who is an authorized user of the system and wants to gain access to the network resources which he/she is not allowed to use. ID techniques can be partitioned into two complementary approaches: misuse detection and anomaly detection. Misuse detection systems, such as [9], [11], model the known attacks and scan the system data for occurrences of these patterns. Anomaly detection systems, such as [2], [7], flag intrusions by observing significant deviations from typical or expected behavior of the system or users. However, these two kinds of IDS have their weaknesses. The former cannot detect novel attacks because their signatures are not yet available for pattern matching. The latter, in general for most such existing systems, have a high false alarm rate because it is difficult to generate practical normal behavior profiles for protected systems. The model is verified on the dataset taken from KDD99Cup which is a standard dataset used for intrusion detection. Earlier studies have utilized a rule-based approach for intrusion detection, but had a difficulty in identifying new attack that had no previously describe patterns. Lately the emphasis is being shifted to learning by examples and data mining paradigms. The use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) for ID is widely considered as the only way to build efficient and adaptive intrusion detection systems. Recently many researches have been conducted on the application of neural networks for ID. Neural networks have been extensively used to identify both misuse and anomalous patterns. Several researchers proposed data mining techniques to identify key patterns that help in detecting intrusions. Distributed agent technology is being proposed by a few researchers to overcome the inherent limitations of the client-server paradigm and to detect intrusions in real time. However, these techniques have some significant shortages. The number of neurons affects the network‟s performance. Increasing the number of output nodes will increase the resolution of the map, but the computation time will dramatically increase. Moreover, feature selection, structure design and weight training are three key tasks for the application of neural network, and a number of researches on these three problems have been done. Traditional leaning algorithms of neural network take single detection task mostly they are difficult to solve the problem of Omission alarm, false alarm, and in distinguish ability of unknown attacks

2. Related Works
M A. Chittur [1] extended their idea by using GA for anomaly detection. Random numbers were generated using GA. Random numbers were generated using GA. A threshold value was established and any certainty value exceeding this threshold value was classified as a malicious attack. The experimental result showed that GA successfully generated an empirical behavior model from training data. The biggest limitation of this model was the difficulty of establishing the threshold value which might lead to detect novel or unknown attacks. J. Gomez et al [3] proposed a linear representation scheme for evolving fuzzy rules using the concept of complete binary tree structure. GA is used to generate genetic operators for producing useful and minimal structure modification to the fuzzy expression tree represented by chromosomes. The biggest drawback of the proposed approach was that the training was time consuming. Liao and Vemuri used the K-nearest Vector Machine for profiling computer

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International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology Vol. 29, April, 2011

programs. The KNN classifier was employed with an interesting analogy between classifying text documents and detecting intrusion using the sequences of system calls. Wang et al. [10] used the evolutionary algorithm for discovering neural networks for intrusion detection. The connections of the network and its weights were encoded with binary bits and evolved simultaneously. Their detection system was evaluated with www log data and showed an accuracy rate of 95%. However, in their experiment, they used their own data set rather than a public bench mark dataset. Hofmann et al [5] proposed the evolutionary learning of radial basis function networks for intrusion detection. They targeted a network based IDS. Their evolutionary algorithm performed two tasks simultaneously selecting the optimal feature set and learning the RBFN. The binary bits system was used to encode the 137 possible features of the network packet headers and three components of the RBFN, including the type of basis function, the number of hidden neurons, and the number of training epochs. In the experiments with the network audit data set, the RBFN optimized with the evolutionary algorithm outperformed the normal MLP and the normal RBFN. Gonzalez et al. [4] proposed an intrusion detection technique based on evolutionary generated fuzzy rules. The conditional part of the fuzzy detection rules was encoded with binary bits and fitness was evaluated using two factors: the accuracy and the coverage of the rule. The performance was compared to the methods of different genetic algorithms and without the fuzziness of rules using two network audit datasets their own wireless dataset and the knowledge discovery and data mining cup 99 data set.

3. Genetic Algorithm
Genetic algorithm is an evolutionary optimization technique based on the principles of natural selection and genetics. The working of genetic algorithm was explained by John Holland [6]. It has been successfully employed to solve wide range of complex optimization problems where search space is too large. GA evolves a population of initial individuals to a population of high quality individuals, where each individual represents a solution of the problem to be solved. Each individual is called a chromosome, and is composed of a predetermined number of genes. The quality of fitness of each chromosome is measured by a fitness function that is based on the problem being solved. The algorithm starts with an initial population of randomly generated individuals. Then the population is evolved for a number of generations while gradually improving the qualities of the individuals in the sense of increasing the fitness value as the measure of quality. During each generation, three basic genetic operators are applied to each individual with certain probabilities, i.e. selection (rank selection, roulette wheel selection and tournament based selection), crossover and mutation.

4. Parameters in Genetic Algorithm
There are many parameters to consider for the application of GA. Each of these parameters heavily influences the effectiveness of the genetic algorithm. We will discuss the methodology and related parameters in the following section. 4.1 Fitness Function The fitness function is one of the most important parameters in genetic algorithm. To evolve input features and network structure simultaneously, the fitness, which is based on the detection accuracy rate, includes a penalty factor for the number of operative input nodes and

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International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology Vol. 29, April, 2011

a penalty factor for the number of operative hidden nodes. The fitness function of the individual a is defined by Fitness (a) = drate (a) × (a) × (a) (1)

Where drate is the detection accuracy rate,  is the penalty factor for the number of operative input nodes;  is the penalty factor for the number of operative hidden nodes. The detection accuracy rate of the individual a is defined by drate (a) = correct (a) / sum (2)

Where correct is the number of accurate detections, sum is the total number of detections which include both normal instances and abnormal instances. Once a mismatch happens, the penalty value is computed using the absolute difference. The penalty is defined by Penalty (a) =1-fitness (a) 4.2 Crossover and Mutation Operator The generated subnet of an input node is the set of its all output connections. The generated subnet of a hidden node is the set of itself, its all input and output connections. The generated subnet of an output node is the set of itself and its all input connections. The connection information includes whether or not the connection exists and the connection weight value. The node information includes bias and activation function. Obviously, the generated subnet of inoperative nodes is empty. The employed mutation operator, which can prevent the premature convergence in evolution, includes five operations: node deletion, connection deletion, connection addition, node addition and weight adjustment. The number of output nodes is invariable, so the deletion and addition of node are limited for input and hidden nodes. The node deletion means making a node inoperative and deleting its generated subnet. The node addition is that an inoperative node is turned operative and assigned connection weights with the other operative nodes. The mutation operator has the same influence as the crossover, thus the necessary step following mutation operation is the same as the crossover. There are also other parameters that need to be considered. These parameters should be adjusted according to the application environment of the system and the organization‟s security policy. (3)

Figure 1: Genetic Algorithm Flow

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International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology Vol. 29, April, 2011

5. Kddcup99 Dataset Description
The KDDCUP99 data set [8] is having 41 features and one target class feature. The dataset contains six million records. The raw training data was about four gigabytes of compressed binary TCP dump data from seven weeks of network traffic. This was processed into about five million connection records. A connection is a sequence of TCP packets starting and ending at some well defined times, between which data flows to and from a source IP address to a target IP address under some well defined protocol. Each connection is labeled as either normal, or as an attack, with exactly one specific attack type. Each connection record consists of about 100 bytes. Attacks fall into four main categories: • DOS: denial-of-service, e.g. SYN flood; • R2L: unauthorized access from a remote machine, e.g. guessing password; • U2R: unauthorized access to local super user (root) privileges, e.g., various ``buffer overflow'' attacks; • Probing: surveillance and other probing, e.g., port scanning. Table 1: Attacks Present in DARPA 1999 Data Set Attack Class
Probe DoS

Attack Type portsweep, ipsweep, lsdomain, ntinfoscan, mscan, illegal-sniffer, queso, satan apache2, smurf, neptune, dosnuke, land, pod, back, teardrop, tcpreset, syslogd, crashiis, arppoison, mailbomb, selfping, processtable, udpstorm, warezclient dict, netcat, sendmail,imap, ncftp, xlock, xsnoop, sshtrojan, framespoof, ppmacro, guest, netbus, snmpget, ftpwrite, httptunnel, phf, named sechole, xterm, eject, ntfsdos, nukepw, secret, perl, ps, yaga, fdformat, ppmacro ffbconfig, casesen, loadmodule, sqlattack

R2L U2R

6. Experiments and Results
The proposed approach contains two stages. In the first one, the training stage, a set of rules for detecting intruders is generated using network audit data offline. In the second stage, the best rules, i.e. the rules with the highest fitness values, are used for intrusion detection in the real-time environment. As some of the network characteristics have higher possibilities to be involved in network intrusions, we have deployed Correlation approach to identify these characteristics. The correlation algorithm was implemented in MATLAB and deployed over the training dataset in order to define the features that participate most frequently in a machinery of an attack. According to the obtained results, we have selected nine features out of forty one used to describe each connection of KDD99Cup dataset as mentioned in the Figure 2. The objective was to select the smallest possible number of the features while maintaining high detection rate of intrusions. In such a way detection could be performed as a real-time one. Every feature represents one gene of the chromosome. As one byte is being used to represent every feature, i.e. every gene, a chromosome that represents each individual is composed of nine bytes.

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International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology Vol. 29, April, 2011

Figure 2: System Flow We have also exploited the possibility of GA to detect the exact type of an attack. Detecting the type of each intrusion is not very important for intrusion detection, but it is important for forensics in order to recover from an attack. In this case a rule can be presented as: if (duration = “1” and src_bytes =”0” and dst_host_srv_serror_rate = “50”) then (attack_name = “portsweep”); if protocol_type = tcp then if service = http then back Else if service= private then neptune else if service =finger | telnet then if count=1 then land if count >=1&&…...

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...Joshua Penn Dr. Stacy Thorne Engl 1301 4/23/2012 Is Obama Really To Blame? Like millions of Americans, I own a car. In order for a car to work though, it depends on gasoline. Gasoline is a commodity that has seen violent swings in prices for the last decade. The current price of gas at my local Quik Trip is $3.63. This price has been as low as $2.99 and has been as high as $3.99 in the last four months alone. Many of my fellow G.O.P. brothers and sisters will have you to believe that President Obama is solely to blame for these price hikes. This is the furthest from the truth. There are many reasons that our prices at the pump are increasing, many of which the President has little power to change. As was previously stated, gas is a commodity. As such it is affected by market trends. Gas prices are also affected by external issues on which the President has little say. The first thing that you learn when you take an economics course is the theory of supply and demand. Think of a child’s seesaw. The recession depressed oil demand, which depressed gas prices. As the global recovery takes hold, more people are working and driving. This is being felt not only by American’s, but by the entire world. Until supplies catch up to the demand we will be looking at even higher prices at the pump. According to Benoit Faucon, “The bottom line for demand: Global consumption of oil and liquid fuels should increase by about 1.3 million barrels a day in the third quarter......

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