Free Essay

New Media

In: Business and Management

Submitted By tendy
Words 7266
Pages 30
Chapter 1
Topic: The impact of new advertising media technologies on company performance.
Author: Tendai T Chigwada (R10651V)
1.0 Introduction
The researcher will carry out a research on the impact of new media technologies on company performance using Econet Wireless Zimbabwe as the case study to the topic under study. In this research proposal, the researcher is going to highlight the activities to be followed in coming up with this research. The researcher will briefly explain the background to the study, statement to the problem, research objectives and questions, significance to the study. Not be left out are the delimitations, limitations, review of the literature, research methodology, data presentation and the budget to be allocated for the entire research. 1.1 Background to the study
Econet Wireless Zimbabwe is Zimbabwe's largest provider of telecommunications services, providing solutions in mobile and fixed wireless telephony, public payphones, internet access and payment solutions. Econet launched its network on the 10th of July 1998 and listed on 17th September 1998. It is one of the largest companies on the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange in terms of market capitalization. The company continues to upgrade its network to carry more subscribers, and further widen its geographical coverage, which is already the most extensive in Zimbabwe.

The reason which motivated me to study this topic is that ,marketing problems often have far reaching effects on any company and if neglected can cause a great threat to the continued existence of the company, especially in the area of advertising and the choice of the advertising medium to use as an aspect of corporate communication. In the light of this statement, examining the impact or effectiveness of new advertising media technologies as a medium of advertising on the company performance particularly sales and consumer behavior using the case of Econet Wireless Zimbabwe is therefore worthy undertaking

The 21st century marked the birth of a new era of the adoption technologically advanced products into the African continent. As it is known technology brings about a lot of changes to the way people live and interact. Therefore this results in an alteration in almost all of the systems in an economy. Zimbabwe experienced a drastic change in technology in the economy in the year 2010 and this resulted in more people owning these technologically advanced products such as smart phones, computers and other technologically advanced products. This did not end there, the increased ownership of smart phones and internet enabled devices resulted in the increased use of internet as a mode of communication. This then gave birth to increased use of internet application such as whatsapp, facebook, twitter, you tube, emails and websites.
This development in the technological field in Zimbabwe resulted in a major shift or change in consumer tastes and preferences especially on the issue of how people access information. This is so because information became readily available on the internet, this resulted in people abandoning other mediums of information which seemed expensive especially print media such as newspapers, magazines, hard copy of books and other printed materials. What this signaled to the commercial sector especially the marketing field was that the means of communications which were being used by customers had become obsolete. This implied that they had to change to these new media, as this was how they would target their customers with promotional information.
Econet was one of the companies which were affected by this shift in technology advancement especially in their Zimbabwean market. By that time, that is 2010 the expenditure on print media advertising by Econet constituted over 60% of the entire advertising budget. But this development in technology forced them to change their advertising strategy especially on the issue of media selection in order to sustain sales which had promised to decline, if the same advertising strategy was used that which allocated a larger proportion of budget on print media.

According to Econet marketing department, end of 2011 saw the decline in print media advertising by almost 20% because other media platforms were adopted such as the sms platform, digital advertising, social media advertising, moving adverts and website advertising. Print media was only used to supplement the new advertising media, for instance in 2012 they started to place only 3 adverts per day in different papers of which back then Econet was known of its massive print media advertising. They would normally place 2 full page adverts in just one paper. Right now as we speak, they are now placing at least one advert per day on certain days

According to the statistics from Econet, this simultaneous reduction in print media advertising and adoption of new media technologies as advertising mediums saw an increase in sales and better circulation of information to customers with almost half a million subscribers getting information through the various Econet social media platforms and other new media platforms compared to the period in which they used to base their advertising on print mediums such as magazines, newspapers, posters, billboards and flyers. In 2012 Econet set up a digital team, which was aimed at analyzing these new media platforms and how they can be best used for the company’s best interest. The adoption of these new media advertising technologies resulted in a massive reduction in advertising expenditure as they are cheap compared to traditional advertising media. For instance a half page advert in the herald newspaper costs about $4000 whilst a banner advert on the herald online costs $300 per month.

Studies have shown that there is no any academic research that has been undertaken to measure the effectiveness of new media technologies on company performance. The existence of this gap has triggered this research to find out, what impact does new media technologies have on company performance

1.2 Statement to the problem.
This research intends to find out whether new advertising media technologies are effective in improving company performance as they have been labeled the most effective marketing tools in the 21st century. This therefore implies that the theoretical benefits of using new media advertising technologies needs to be put into analysis in order to measure their actual influence on company performance. 1.3 Research objectives.

* To determine which new media technologies are being used by Econet Zimbabwe. * To find out whether advertising through these new media technologies influence consumer buying behavior. * To evaluate the effectiveness of these new media technologies compared to the traditional advertising mediums.

1.4 Research questions.

* What are the new advertising media technologies being used by Econet and what impact do they have on company performance? * What are the competitive advantages of these new advertising media technologies compared to the traditional ones? * Does advertising through these new media technologies influence consumer buying behavior?

1.5 Hypothesis * New media advertising technologies have impact on company performance. * New advertising media technologies do not have any impact on company performance.
* The business environment will remain unchanged during the course of the research. * The chosen sample will represent the entire population. * Respondents will provide the researcher with true and correct information. * The researcher will only gather relevant, reliable, accurate and unbiased information in order to come up with a successful research or study.

1.7Significance of the study

1.7.0To the Industry * The findings of this study should help advertisers, scholars and practitioners in the field appreciate some of the innovative revolutionary technologies in the field of advertising and their influence on company performance and the advertising industry and also how they influence consumer behavior. Also it should help marketers and advertisers when planning their marketing campaign and strategies, as they would now have available empirical research to back up their proposals if the campaign would be new * From this research, Business owners and advertisers can accurately predict the response of their audiences to their advert message and the medium through which the messages are delivered. This would help them develop messages that would appeal to the audiences and also ensure they communicate same message through the right

1.7.1To the researcher * The researcher will benefit from this research as a student by gaining experience for future researches that the researcher will undertake. The researcher we will get to understand the impact print media advertising has on company performance and this will help the researcher to fulfill the requirements for the attainment of the Bachelor of Commerce Honors Degree in Marketing Management.

1.7.2To the Institution * This research will help the University in assessing the student carrying out the research as it is partial fulfillment of the requirements of the Degree being studied by the researcher. The university will also use this research as a reference to future studies on the subject of print media advertising.
1.7.3To the company * This research will help them in making decision pertaining print media advertising and it will also indicate what contributions has print media advertising made to company performance. It will also enlighten management on how best they can improve company performance through effective use of the advertising dollar by allocating it to the most effective media.

1.8Delimitations * The area of focus will be on new media advertising technologies, consumer behavior, company performance and traditional advertising mediums. * The study will be focused on one branch Econet Livingstone Harare, where the marketing department is stationed. * The study participants will include management and employees of Econet, management and employees of Econet’s advertising agency Di Comm advertising and lastly the customers of Econet wireless Zimbabwe particularly those in Harare. * The data period for secondary data information like financial statements will be from the period between 2010 and mid 2013

1.9Limitations. * The major limitation that is going to be faced by the researcher is that of time frame for the research, which will be inadequate to conduct the research simultaneously with other academic studies that require the same attention. The researcher will however make use of weekends and spare time such as working during the night in order to make that this research is successful. * The time spent with management, employees and customers of Econet will be limited as they will have other pressing issues to attend to. The researcher will negotiate with the management for a slot of little time in order to get the necessary information. As for the customers the researcher will make sure that the time spent with them will be as short as possible such that they will not hesitate to assist the researcher with information. * Some respondents may hesitate to disclose personal information, however the researcher will convince them that the information given will be used for academic purposes only and will also provide a letter of approval from the University. * The funds to travel to Harare to gather information will be limited. The researcher will travel only on certain interval and will use other alternative means of communication like email and phone which are a bit cheap and affordable.

1.10 Definition of terms. * New Media - as ‘cultural objects which use digital computer technology for distribution and exhibition. * Consumer Behavior - is the study of when, why, how, and where people do or do not buy a product. * Company performance - It can be defined as the accomplishment of a given task measured against preset known standards of accuracy, completeness, cost, and speed.

Chapter 2
Literature Review
Different books and journals shall be sourced and used for this research. The books will give the researcher better insight into progress made in this field and other similar and relevant researches that have been carried out in this The researcher will also identify arguments developments within this field of new advertising media technologies and how authors work have helped increase knowledge or cause confusion.

2.0 Definition of New advertising Media Technologies

2.0.1Definition of Media
According to business dictionary media can be defined as communication channels through which news, entertainment, education data promotional messages are disseminated. Media includes every broadcasting and narrowcasting mediums such as newspapers, magazines, TV, radio, billboards, direct mail, telephone, fax and internet. Other authors define media as agencies, means or instruments used to convey advertising messages to the public. These definitions are similar in the sense that they all state that media is a medium of communication through which information is transmitted to the public.

However their perception differs in the sense that business dictionary gives a general definition while these other authors limit the definition of the use of media to conveying advertising messages of which in reality they are used for various purpose as indicated in the earlier definition. From my own point of view these authors did not state other new media technologies that are being used by people such as moving media such as vehicles. The works of these authors, have kind of instilled a restricted mind that media is also about print, electronic and digital media. Such that people no longer look any further when it comes to media as long as they managed to utilize the afore forms of media.

2.0.1Definition of New Media
Most technologies described as “new media” are digital and often have characteristics of being networkable, dense, compressible, interactive and impartial. Examples are the internet, websites, computer multimedia, games, CD ROMs and DVDs, internet blogs, news portals, online news, facebook, you tube, and podcast, webcast and even the short messaging system (SMS) are new According to new media can be defined as ‘cultural objects which use digital computer technology for distribution and exhibition. Thus, Internet, Web sites, computer multimedia, computer games, CD-ROMs and DVD, Virtual Reality, and computer-generated special effects all fall under new media”. This definition is supported in which defines new media to mean “a generic term for the many different forms of electronic communication that are made possible through the use of computer technology”. This clearly shows that new media is electronic and make use of computer technology.

These definitions from these various authors point to the same view point about new media, but my question from the issue that these authors never mentioned mobile devices as being part of the new media particularly the smart phones of which they have contributed much in the field of advertising. Also it is through these devices that the aforesaid application are being used, this implies that they definition leaves the concept of mobile marketing thus creating confusion between academics. That is, should these devices be classified as traditional media, but the answer is no because most of them were not there in the 20th century even centuries. I think when modification to something is done, that makes it something completely new. Therefore mobile marketing is indeed an important aspect of these new media technologies.

Also the above definition talks of interactivity as an element of new media but if we are to look at digital billboards for example, communication is just one as the traditional media is like. This then shows that their definitions are somehow biased towards a certain category of new media leaving out other forms of new media which are not interactive in nature. The definition by Manovich states that new media is cultural object, this definition is kind of broad and vague because not everyone understands what cultural objects are in terms of new media. Thus this definition might be misinterpretated by people and end up having a completely different meaning than what the author intends to highlight.

2.1 Types of New Advertising technologies.

2.1.0 Mobile Advertising or Marketing. describes mobile marketing to be a “permission-based mobile advertising” that is a flexible and tactical medium suitable for short, time-based communication. They also describes it simply as ‘advertising that uses mobile terminals as its target platform’. Authors on u.k essays defines mobile marketing communications as, as a contextualized advertising that makes use of a medium to disseminate customized campaigns targeting users according to where they are, their needs at the moment and the devices they are using. Others scholars on that platforms also define mobile marketing as the use of a wireless medium to provide customers with individualized information about products, services, and ideas at any time and locations, which benefit all stakeholders. In the same vein, according to Advertising age (2006:20) mobile marketing is defined as “the use of wireless media as an integrated content delivery and direct-response vehicle within a cross-media marketing communications program”

From these definitions, it is clear that mobile marketing is basically communication of marketing/advertising messages directly to the target audience through mobile devices over Bluetooth, mobile internet or GSM coverage/WIFI. Any kind of advertising that makes use of mobile phones, PDAs, I pads or any mobile communications device to communicate the message qualifies as Mobile marketing, examples are; proximity marketing, sms marketing/advertising, Bluetooth advertising etc. The researcher therefore wants to find out how this increasingly popular medium is affecting the way advertisers create and communicate their messages and its impact on consumer

2.1.1 Definition of Social media Advertising and Marketing. Social Media.
According to social media is an internet based software and interfaces that allow individuals to interact with one another, exchange details about lives such as biographical data, professional information, and personal photos and up to the minute’s thoughts. Social Media Advertising and Marketing.
This refers to the process of gaining website traffic or attention through social media sites. Social media advertising usually centers on efforts to create content that attracts attention and encourages readers to share it with their social networks Brick marketing defines social medial marketing as the methodical use of marketing with other technological concepts and techniques to achieve specific goals for a company. Included under this is facebook, twitter, and linked in, my space and the whatsapp platform. These definitions differ in the sense that the definition by talks of social media marketing being meant to increase traffic to company websites. Brick marketing emphases the issue of achieving company objectives through the use of these technologically advanced concepts. This definition by brick marketing has really helped companies to appreciate that social media advertising is a platform which can be used to achieve company objectives through increased website traffic rather than using it just as a media of interacting with customers without getting something out of it

However these definition might emphasize that these social media platforms help companies achieve their objectives, but if we are to take a closer look at it. There is some lack of control on what appears on these social media platforms. For instance some issues which are supposed to be dealt with behind closed door to avoid damaging of company reputation end up being aired up on these platforms by some unhappy customers or computer hackers can sabotage a company thus affecting the confidence of other customers. What this implies is that these platforms have to be used with extra caution else, using them may hinder the achievement of company objectives.

2.1.2 Digital media

According to some scholars digital media is a form of electronic media where data is stored in digital form. It can refer to the technical aspect of storage and transmission (e.g. hard disk drives or computer networking) of information or to the "end product", such as digital video, augmented reality, digital signage, digital audio, or digital art. Digital marketing is marketing that makes use of electronic devices such as computers, tablets, smart phones, cell phones, digital billboards, and game consoles to engage with consumers and other business partners. Apart from using many of the techniques and practices contained within the category of internet marketing, digital marketing extends beyond this by including other channels that do not require the use of the Internet. www.wikipedia

Due to non-dependence on the internet, the field of digital marketing includes a whole lot of elements such as mobile phones or cell phones, display, banner ads, sms /mms, digital outdoor and many more. Digital media refers to any type of media that is in an electronic or digital format for the convenience and entertainment of consumers. It includes anything that is presented in an audio (sound) or video (visual) form that can be seen and heard by others. Examples include music files, such as MP3, Midi, or WMA files; video feeds found on the Internet at popular video websites; and animated Flash® or graphic design files and images used to create interactive websites and games.
From the above definitions of digital media, it means that this new media of the digital form is just an advancement that has been made to the different forms of electronic media that have been used of late. For instance devices like cell phone and billboards have been in existence since time immemorial. What this implies is that companies that keep abreast of technology will never be left out in exploiting this type of new media, as they will be simply taking a step ahead in terms of advancement. These two definitions all stresses the same point about the fact that digital media involves something that is in a digital format and somehow makes use of internet. However their works differs in what they say is part of the digital media for instance authors on Wikipedia talks of digital banners as part of the digital media but the other author only mentions that something presented in an audio and video format is classifies as digital media. This j\has caused some confusion as to what people call digital media. But this research will seek to clarify what exactly falls under digital media, so that the business community can be more enlightened and be able to make viable decisions.

2.1.3 Internet.
Internet marketing, as the name suggests, is the process which promotes your businesses and services over the internet. Also known as web marketing, online marketing or e-Marketing, Internet marketing is the synergy of creative and technical aspects of the internet. Internet marketing services involve designing, development advertising and selling of the product.

Internet marketing uses the internet to deliver promotional marketing messages to consumers. It includes email marketing, search engine marketing, social media marketing, many types of display advertising (including web banner advertising), and mobile advertising. Like other advertising media, online advertising frequently involves both a publisher, who integrates advertisements into its online content and an advertiser, who provides the advertisements to be displayed on the publisher’s

The above definitions tend to involve a lot of things; this has caused a lot of confusion among the academic community. Since it becomes difficult to really what internet advertising media is. On the other hand one can conclude that the internet is an umbrella term which, these other forms of media fall under. The detailed dissertation will seek to explore and find out what internet advertising media is.

2.2The impact of New Advertising Media Technologies on Company performance

2.2.0 Company performance.
It can be defined as the accomplishment of a given task measured against preset known standards of accuracy, completeness, cost, and speed. A lot of factors can be used to measure company performance, some use sales and profits. But for this research, the researcher will look at company performance in the context of consumer buying behavior. This is so because it becomes tricky to look at sales and profits because they are a lot of factors that influence sales for example promotions, but if we look at the media and consumer behavior are more related as these are more targeted and thus making it easier to measure consumer buying behavior in relation to media.

2.2.1 Consumer buying behavior defined

Consumer behavior in simple terms is the study of when, why, how, and where people do or do not buy a product. Certain factors affect all the variables listed in the definition. It is clear that the way we perceive and get information has changed or is changing; people are no longer controlled by the media; now you can record live programs and watch it when you have the time! When, where and how we buy items have changed; virtually anything can be bought online these days. Because people are changing the way they get information, advertisers need to ensure that they create adverts for different communication platforms that would effectively communicate with the target audience. Technologies are changing consumer behavior, which in turn changes the type of message and medium that would appeal to the consumer, hence forcing advertisers to accept these changes and provide adverts to suit these new needs.

2.2.2 New advertising media technologies and consumer behavior.
New media has created new ways for consumers to get information and of course this in turn has changed the way adverts are created and how they are communicated to the consumers. It is therefore imperative to determine how new innovative technologies in communication has impacted consumer behavior and to what The ways consumers communicate with each other have been changing dramatically over the last decade, and the same is true for how consumers gather and exchange information about products and how they obtain and consume them. The rise of a plethora of new media has provided consumers with extensive options for actively providing information on services and

The digital innovations of the last decade made it effortless, indeed second nature, for audiences to talk back and talk to each other. New media have also empowered them to promote and distribute their own offers consumers today serve as retailers on eBay, media producer and directors on YouTube, authors on Wikipedia, and critical reviewers on Amazon and Tripadvisor; they do all of this and more on Facebook and MySpace. And they no longer require their computer to do so through high-tech mobile phones, portable computers and portals such as Twitter; real-time information exchange has become an integral element of consumer behavior anywhere and anytime. User-generated content has become a mass phenomenon, with Facebook, MySpace, YouTube, Wikipedia, and Twitter all being listed among the Top 15 websites, accounting for more than 11 percent of global internet traffic, as of April 2010. New media makes such articulations which have been labeled electronic word-of-mouth EWOM accessible to online and even offline shoppers, as consumer can use mobile devices to reviews while out on the town. EWOM can easily be forwarded to

Consumers spend a substantial share of their social life on websites such as MySpace and
Facebook, which host so-called online communities consumer groups that interact online to achieve personal as well as shared goals of their members. Online communities complement their real world counterparts and serve as forums for consumers exchanging thoughts and ideas. Firms are increasingly trying to use online communities to enhance their customer

Summarily what these authors are saying is that, the tastes and preferences of consumers have changed and this has been driven by technological advancement. Therefore to capture the attention of these customers and make sure that they behave in a manner beneficial to the company, marketers now have to follow them on these new media and also try to control the EWOM for the good in order to benefit from the advantages of these new media technologies.

2.3The competitive Advantages of New Advertising Media Technologies compared to the traditional media platforms. The new advertising media technologies have been labeled the best advertising mediums of the 21st century, but is there any evidence that can be used to substantiate this assertion. The following are the claimed benefits of the new advertising media technologies:

* The Less Expensive Option - Television and radio airtime, billboards, and newspaper ads… all these are much more expensive than the costs that using the social media networks can entail. For example, getting 30 seconds in prime time on cable television will cost you at least $5,000 while 60 seconds of radio fame will take anywhere from $900 to $1500.The cost of a month of social media marketing ranges from $4,000 to $7,000, depending on the number of networks you want to work on. Furthermore, unlike the traditional methods which only cater to one or two types of promotional materials, written articles, fully animated video, and audios can be fully accommodated in one channel the social However although the cost might seem substantial low, the cost of damage that are associated with using social media, can cost the company a fortune especially when it comes to bad publicity triggered by lack of control on what happens on these social media platforms. This means that extra caution has to be taken when it comes to using these new advertising media technologies.

* The Worldwide Reach – These new advertising media technologies makes it possible for your business to reach a global audience, not just a local or national one, at a reasonable expense. This is probably one of the most significant advantages that using new advertising media technologies especially social media has over the more conventional methods of advertising. To be able to reach millions of people worldwide using television, for example, you would have to pay a hefty amount. With social media marketing, you get the same benefit without emptying your pockets of the last loose .This is an undisputable benefit of using social media compared to these traditional media technologies which are costly and have a positive relationship between reach and cost. A lot has been done to reduce these costs but still, these reductions are far outweighed by the lowest cost and worldwide reach of most of the new advertising media technologies.

* Superior Customer Relations - What better way is there to build your ties with customers and industry networks? Through the social media platform, you can obtain reactions to your products, run ideas through your audience, and manage customer services. People can immediately “like” your product, comment on it, or share it with their friends. Billboard ads, television commercials, and radio time do not allow for such direct ways for your audience to give you feedback. Only social media marketing can help you gain the most direct path to interacting with your audience, something that the usual media could only dream of

* Extremely Measurable Results - Taking advantage of social media marketing services, like that of Internet Marketing Arizona, will provide you a quicker way of monitoring statistics compared to the long waiting period that comes with traditional media. You can instantly get a feel for which marketing messages are received favorably and which ones need tweaks. With the traditional way of doing things, you will have to wait at least a week or so for concrete results and statistics to be collated. www.dreamgrow.comThis very true because it is very difficult to measure the results of a TV campaign and it’s not even easy to know whether customers like the advert or not but with other platforms it is easier to get responses.

* Longer Lasting Presence - Television ads last as long as the amount of money you invest on them, and billboards may last longer but they get replaced eventually. With the current trend of archiving and indexing done by the search engines, your social media efforts to promote your product will survive in the decades to

These are some of the competitive advantages of new advertising media technologies; however traditional media continue to play an important role in our society. Ingredients of traditional media are given special projection in the mass media and as such traditional media are being used in development communication. More shall be explored in detail about the benefits of traditional over new advertising media technologies in the full detailed research.

Chapter 3

Research Methodology

In this section of the research proposal, the researcher will highlight the methods that the researcher will use in collecting the data about the topic under study. The key elements covered are the research design, the sampling process, the research instruments, data collection procedures as well as data analysis procedures.
3.1 Research Design
A detailed outline of how an investigation will take place. A research design will typically include how data is to be collected, what instruments will be employed, how the instruments will be used and the intended means for analyzing data There are three types of research designs namely exploratory, descriptive and causal research designs. Of these three the researcher will use exploratory and causal research designs for the purpose of this research.
3.1.0 Exploratory Research
Is an investigation into a problem or situation which provides insights to the research and is meant to provide details where a small amount of information exists. The researcher will use this design because; the research allows the marketer to gain information on a subject that they may have previously known little about and furthermore, can also provide a platform upon which a formalized research project can be built. Also if the researcher uses this research design in the early stages of the research, this will help the researcher to assess the situation in hand with the minimum cost and time possible. Versatility and a wide-ranged approach to the preliminary investigation are the main benefits of this genre of research. The exploratory research can draw on interviews, observations, group interviews, secondary data sources and case histories. Lastly using this design will result in better understandings as it help the researcher to determine why and how things happen? With exploratory research the researcher will have flexibility of sources as secondary data sources can be used. Lastly it saves a great deal of time and money as flagging dead ends
3.1.1 Causal Research
Causal research involves the investigation of an issue or topic that looks at the effect of one thing or variable on the other. A causal-comparative design is a research design that seeks to find relationships between independent and dependent variables after an action or event has already occurred. The researcher's goal is to determine whether the independent variable affected the outcome, or dependent variable, by comparing two or more groups of individuals. The research design will also be used because, the researcher what to identify whether new advertising media technologies have an impact on company performance or not. Of which that is what causal research is all about. It is less expensive and time consuming as well, this makes the suitable design to use given the fact that the researcher has limited time frame to complete this research.

3.2Target Population
A research population is generally a large collection of individuals or objects that is the main focus of a scientific query. It is for the benefit of the population that researches are done. For this research the target population will be the management and employees of Econet Wireless Zimbabwe and the advertising agency of Econet Wireless Zimbabwe. The customers of Econet Wireless Zimbabwe will also be part of the target population. The target population will be restricted to Harare only.

3.3 Sampling

Sampling can be defined as selecting part of the elements in a population. It results in the fact that, conclusions from the sample may be extended to that about the entire population. There are two types of sampling procedures that is probability and non-probability sampling. Of these two, the researcher will use probability sampling technique. This is most effective sampling technique because all elements (e.g., persons, households) in the population have some opportunity of being included in the sample, and the mathematical probability that any one of them will be selected can be calculated. The technique to be used is simple random sampling.K.Chaturvedi (2009)

3.3.0 Simple Random Sampling

Involve randomly selecting a sample from a larger sample or population, giving all the individuals in the sample an equal chance to be chosen. K.Chatuvedi(2009). The researcher will use this technique because in a simple random sample, individuals are chosen at random and not more than once and this prevents a bias that would negatively affect the validity of the result of the experiment.

3.4 Sample Size
In determining sample size will use the table which propounded by Van Dalen
3.4.0Sample size for management and employees marketing department Econet Zimbabwe Population size | Confidence interval | Error margin | Sample size | 20 | 95% | 5% | 19 |

3.4.1Sample Size for management and employees for Econet Wireless Advertising Agency Population Size | Confidence interval | Error Margin | Sample size | 30 | 95% | 5% | 28 |

3.4.2Sample size for Harare Econet customers
As Econet customers in Harare the entire population is too large 4 million subscribers, therefore my population size will be 0.001 % of the customer base which is 4 000 subscriber. This is quiet a reasonable and realistic sample size. From there, the researcher will now use Bartlett, Kotrlik and Huggins (2001) sample size table

Population size | Confidence interval | Error margin | Sample size | 4 000 | 95% | 3% | 83 |

3.5 Data Sources
There are two main sources of data namely primary and secondary, for this research both sources will be used in gathering data relevant in answering the research questions and fulfilling the research objectives.
3.5.0 Primary data.
Primary data means original data that has been collected specially for the purpose in mind. It means someone collected the data from the original source first The researcher will collect information from respondents about the issue of new advertising media technologies and its impact on company performance. This is so because primary data is more reliable, authentic and objective and it will not have been changed or altered by human beings; therefore its validity is greater than secondary data. Data will be collected through communication that is will be asking questions to respondents.

3.5.1 Why use primary data * The researcher will collect exactly the data elements that answer the research questions. * The researcher can control the data collection process, to ensure data quality, minimize the number of missing values, and assess the reliability of the instruments to be used. * To avoid the tendency with secondary data to "dredge" for research questions instead of developing research questions based on real knowledge deficits. * To select a sample that is specifically designed to help answer the research question, so that irrelevant exclusion criteria are not a concern. P.Romano, (2006)

3.5.2 Secondary Data
Secondary data is all the information collected for purposes other than the completion of a research project and it’s used to gain initial insight into the research problem. It is classified in terms of its source either internal or Although primary data is considered more accurate than secondary data, the researcher will use secondary to gather information which will be available from secondary data like sales reports, customer complain files and various company trends.
3.5.3 Why use secondary data * For a small effect size, it may be impossible to collect primary data on a sufficient number of cases. * The accessible population for primary data may be less representative of the target population than that for secondary data. P.Romano,( 2006)

* 3.6 Research Instruments
A research instrument is what you use to collect the information in a qualitative field study or observation. It helps you keep track of what you observe and how to report it. It must be both valid and There are various types of research instruments, but for the purpose of this research interviews and questionnaire will be used. The research instruments to be used will be structured to allow easy analysis of data, undisguised as this will be for academic purposes and will be conducted in a natural environment.
3.6.0 Interviews
A method of data collection, information or opinion gathering that specifically involves asking a series of questions. Typically, an interview represents a meeting or dialogue between people where personal and social interaction occur. For this research , the researcher will use face to face and telephone interviews. The researcher will use this research instrument because; they allow the researcher to do a depth investigation and allow the researcher will have the lee-way to ask more questions. They also have a high response rate especially for management, as they do not have much time to seat down and fill in questionnaires. Also due to unavailability of funds to frequently travel to Harare telephone interviews will be more suitable as they are less costly than incurring all the travelling expenses.
3.6.1 Questionnaires
According to Wikipedia a questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents. This will be used to gather information from employees and customers, since it is impossible to interview each and every employee and customers given the time frame for this research. They also allow flexibility as they can be emailed to allow for cheaper means of collecting data.
3.7 Validity and Reliability
To ensure validity and reliability of data, the researcher will emphasize to respondents that the data gathered will be used for academic purposes by showing them the letter of approval from the university. This will be done to ensure that only correct information is collected. The researcher will pretest the questionnaires to ensure that people are giving the correct information pertaining the answering of questionnaires. The researcher will avoid asking respondents long and technical questions, that is jargon will be avoided in asking respondents questions be it in interviews or questionnaires. Before distributing the questionnaires, the researcher will get advice from the supervisor and the marketing executive from Econet to ensure that the information collected is valid and reliable. The researcher will make use of structured questionnaires and interviews to avoid variability of data which normally result in unreliability of data due to many differences.
Chapter 4
4.0 Data Analysis and presentation
Data collected from primary and secondary sources will be analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Quantitative analysis involves questionnaire validation, editing, assigning numerical values that is coding, transcription and data cleaning. The researcher will make use pie charts, bar graphs and other means of graphical presentation of data such as tables.

Item | Cost | Travelling allowance | $50 | Food Allowance | $30 | Questionnaire preparing and printing | $20 | Phone calls and internet | $25 | Totals | $125 |

The Funds are limited because the researcher only has the parents as the sources of funds.

References 1. K.Chaturvedi, (2009), “Sampling Methods” Available from 2. P.Romano , (2006), “Data Sources” Available from UC Davis. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.…...

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