Free Essay

Nato Expansion

In: Social Issues

Submitted By olskool45
Words 1271
Pages 6
NATO Expansion
Is NATO America’s New Tool

POL 300

March 12, 2010

NATO Expansion
Is NATO America’s New Tool

After serving two tours one of them had a combined consecutive tour length of six and one half years, I never realized how close I was to NATO headquarters located in Brussels Belgium. After being deployed to Bosnia Herzegovina and realizing the role NATO was playing gave me a new found understanding of its mission. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization known as NATO was formed in response to the threat Western Democracies encountered from the spreading influence of communism in the post World War II era.
Currently NATO has 28 nations who have aligned themselves in the organization, which has seen its share of good and bad times. During the immediate period up until the cold war era NATO was a driving force for peace efforts between countries and states. After the President Reagan’s historical proclamation on June 12, 1987 while speaking to the people in West Berlin, at the Brandenburg Gate. His speech is considered by many to be the beginning of the end of the Cold War and the fall of communism. The wall actually was torn down during November 9-11, 1989, reuniting families who were once separated by the wall.
This event, even though a joyous occasion begin the slow demise of what NATO stood for. What would be the next step for NATO now that the Cold War was ending and the reality that communism’s spread was significantly diminished to a meager memory? The resurgence of NATO would be brought back to life with vigor as the United States and the world as a whole, dealt with the aftermath of the attack. Former President George W. Bush, while addressing the audience at the NATO summit in Prague a little over a year after the 9-11 attacks spoke on NATO’s expansion. He focus his speech on justifying why NATO expansion is necessary, while with precision enounced and edict against then Iraqi dictator and leader Sadam Hussein. Bush’s edict was that the United States would enforce voluntarily or by force the goal of disarmament of Iraq’s weapons of mass destruction.
Bush’s speech appeared to be a pre-war preparation speech to the NATO and the world by eluding that “And because many threats to NATO members come from outside of Europe, NATO forces must be organized to operate outside of Europe. When forces were needed quickly in Afghanistan, NATO’s options were limited. We must build new capabilities and we must strengthen our will to use those capabilities.” (NATO America’s Most Important Global Relationship) However his speech did not go unnoticed, Critics complained that NATO has turned into an instrument of the United States. According to Editor Irene Marr of GlobalSecurity.org, Mostly liberal and left-leaning in NATO suggest that the alliance had been relegated to America’s “toolbox.” Their chief complaint was that the United States had taken advantage of the Prague summit to “lobby” allies to support the campaign against Iraq. She states that some of the parties echoed Cairo’s charge that NATO was nothing more than a “political garage to be used, whenever necessary, by the United States.” She also indicates that some of the editorials reflected Europe’s sense of inferiority, that NATO is nothing without the United States. They also lamented that Europe’s failure to speak with one voice left it without the capacity to influence Washington. Others, including a Brazilian writer, held that NATO suffered from an identity crisis. Moscow’s reformist Izvestiya stated that NATO members have yet to decide what they are, U.S partners or an alternative to U.S. hegemony.
Some may believe that NATO’s role has become a somewhat useful toolbox. Jack Vanempten (De Financieel-Economische Tijd Nov. 21, 2002) states “More and more the Americans view NATO as a useful toolbox. Depending on their needs, troops can be deployed to stop conflicts when they start or exercise control. Just like the United Nations is being pushed into a secondary role, NATO seems to become an instrument of U.S. foreign policy. Every criticism on the United States triggers a grumpy response… The American President is clearly heading for one goal: A war against Iraq. His statements in Prague leave little to the imagination. For the rest of the world the United Nations Resolution on the arms inspection in Iraq is a last chance for Iraq. For the United States it is only an obligatory diplomatic intermission. Bush does not need NATO for this plans regarding Iraq. He will choose his partners in function of their loyalty and obedience. AS a faithful dog the British are putting their troops on alert.” Another sign of the consensus in thought regarding the United States using NATO as it’s personal toolbox comes from Editorialist Che Anoma who write in the (Yaoundé- based pro-opposition English language bi- weekly post November 22, 2002) “ Whereas NATO leaders have a common agenda, Bush has a personal agenda. He hopes to enlist the support of the seven Eastern European countries for a possible military attack on Iraq, in case the latter defies the new UN resolution. Even though Iraq has pledged to comply with the tough UN resolution, George Bush, probably because of previous experiences, does not seem to have faith in the Iraqi leadership. The Bush administration strongly believes that Saddam Hussein’s acceptance of weapons inspectors is a ploy and as time goes on he will relapse to his paroxysm of erratic decision making about the inspectors.” The liberal Guardian (November 19, 2002) "The NATO meeting will focus primarily not on the long-anticipated decision to admit seven new east European members, but on a Bush administration to transform NATO into an alliance tasked with fighting WMD proliferation and terrorism.... Despite surprisingly little public debate, Prague is expected to approve the plan. The main overarching argument in favor is that this rededication of NATO to George Bush's 'war on terror' will give it a relevance it has lacked since the cold war's end.... But the disadvantages for Europe are serious. A green light in Prague will inevitably be seen as a political endorsement of Mr. Bush's aggressive global security strategy.... Such free-range militarism may quickly come into conflict with the United Nations system, collective European interests and, perhaps, European security priorities such as Balkan peacekeeping. The basic, unresolved issue remains a united Europe's long term need to provide for its own defense and security, in concert with the U.S. perhaps, but not under its direction." From these editors readings and many others who may have attended and or heard President Bush’s speech to NATO in Prague it appears evident that this was one of the platforms the Bush administration utilized to promote their ultimate agenda to go to war with Iraq. This may give credence to the argument that NATO’s role has truly changed. The Bush Administration may have set the precedence for NATO to become an unwilling pawn in the biding of the United States. Instead of being a multinational alliance, it may well truly lose its identity to become nothing more than a multinational toolbox for the United States.

References

PRAGUE SUMMIT: NATO REINVENTED FOR NEW THREAT AND AS 'TOOL' FOR U.S. (November 2002)
Retrieved March 12, 2010 http://www.globalsecurity.org NATO America’s Most Important Global Relationship (November 2002)
Retrieved March 12, 2010 http://usinfo.state.gov
Robert Longley (About.Com 2010) Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!" The beginning of the end of the Cold War
Retrieved March 12, 2009 http://usgovinfo.about.com/od/historicdocuments/a/teardownwall.htm…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Expansion and Merger

...RUNNING HEAD: EXPANSION AND MERGER Expansion and Merger ECO 550 – Managerial Economics and Globalization Xiaodong Wu Ph.D., Instructor August 26, 2012 Expansion and Merger The essence of retail marketing is developing merchandise and services that satisfy specific needs of customers, and supplying them at prices that will yield profits. Competition in the today's business marketplace often demands that organizations merge with each other to remain competitive and increase revenue, profits and market share.  Others may be looking to consolidate their operations to achieve economies of scale and standardization of processes. Mergers and acquisitions occur when a company buys, sells, or combines with another company within the same country or across borders (Luthans & Doh, 2009). Government regulation is constantly present in our lives. This paper is a continuation from assignment two and will look at how government regulations affect expansion and merger in the retail industry.  “Mergers can be competitive strategies, or they can be attempts to create firms large enough to exercise market power” (Michaels, 2011). Successful mergers are a combination of four critical components: culture, business practices, technology, and time.......

Words: 2263 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Office Expansion

...increased network traffic, and a lot more collision domains. The network load was severely affected because on the increase in demand within the network. The network was also affected because of the addition of more nodes on the network the traffic is doubled. I would highly recommend the use of Network Load Balancing which scales the performance of a server-based programs and it also helps to evenly distribute the load and traffic through the network. Server load balancing should also be put into place into order to lighten the load that is on the servers. Strategic planning expansion should also be practiced because it is nice to come prepared for the worst instead of just crossing your fingers. I would setup the first server followed by the 30 nodes that I connected to the switch I then put a load onto the network and ran my tests, making sure that the results were positive. Next I would add an expansion onto the network so I added another switch and connected 15 nodes to that. Finally, I would re-run the networks test at which led to the increase in nodes which would put a much higher strain on the network and the server load in general. This looks all good on paper but unfortunately I was unable to complete all the steps. The creation of the network is a little more complicated and required much more pratice than I expected. I spent four hours trying to complete this task. This was more time than I was instructed to spend. But I love challenges!!!!!...

Words: 288 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Global Expansion

...Global Expansion MGMT455 Unit 4 Assignment Abstract As a part of a consulting firm, we are tasked to help with plans for global expansion. The company wants the upper-level management to focus on the initiatives of going global and the lower-level management to focus on the day to day operations. There are some concerns they want dealt with which include employee morale, budget, performance issues, performer’s identification, alternatives to moving forward, and evaluation of leadership dynamics. Global Expansion Kelley Company has hired a consulting firm to organize a research paper to line up with the strategies for a global expansion. For the past ten years the business has seen a steady growth but believes that there need to be further layers of management to escalate performance. The upper level management team will concentrate on the intentional initiatives of the business going global while the lower level management team will concentrate on the day to day operations. There will be a few challenges along the way and the firm has to advise the executive team about their concerns. The morale of the employee are down because half of the current employees are content with holding their current job and the other half are keen to be promoted. There are many things a leader can do to boost morale. One way is to keep the employees sensing that their work is more than just a job or taking the time to artistically celebrate accomplishments. Another way is to...

Words: 1015 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Nato

...devastating in economical and social perspective. In the recent years however, most of the wars are internal meaning within the countries rather than against one another. To help promote peace and bring the world together the North Atlantic Treaty Organization was created. NATO was established on April 4th 1949 and its headquarters are in Brussels, Belgium. When NATO was first founded it was shaped as a political association but that changed during the years. The entire idea of NATO was to protect all the Western European countries and the United States from a possible attack from the Soviet Union. On March 17, 1948 the Treaty of Brussels was signed by Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, and the United Kingdom. These are the first member states of the NATO that remain still very active in this organization. However, all these European countries needed the support and military supply of the United States thus immediate talks on its joining the organization started. The North Atlantic Treaty was signed on April 4, 1949 in Washington D.C. and despite the five mentioned state members and the United States, Canada, Portugal, Italy, Norway, Denmark, and Iceland also joined the organization. So, at the beginning NATO was created to bring a few countries together and be protected by the other enemy countries or political system. Communism, the Cold War, and the Korean War, all created a sense of insecurity and fear so developed countries wanted to stick together and fight......

Words: 2645 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Nato and the Cold War

...militarily dominated by the United States. From its very beginning, NATO was not simply about defending the Allies against the Soviet threat but the alliance also became the institutionalization of the relationship between North America and Western Europe. In the words of NATO’s first Secretary General, Lord Ismay, the role of NATO during the Cold War was “to keep the Russians out, the Americans in, and the Germans down” (Wheatcroft, Geoffrey. June 15, 2011. The New York Times). During the Cold War years, NATO played a decisive and unrivalled role in Western Europe’s security architecture. The collapse of Communism and the disintegration of the Soviet Union in the period from 1989 to 1991 called into question NATO’s future role and even its continued existence. After the end of World War II, all involved countries, with no exception of being victorious or defeated, have started seeking of the prevention of a new disaster by reconstructing and maintaining the security and peace primarily in Europe. All huge and disastrous events (such as World Wars) which affected whole world were originated from the uncomfortable conditions and conflicts in the continent. Thus the main task was to settle a mechanism that would eliminate any emerging threat against the continental security and maintain the order and peace. For this purpose, in 1949 West European countries established the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in order to protect the member countries against any possible......

Words: 415 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Cms Expansion

...heaa CMS Expansion to Bundled Payments Jimmy Lei HCS/455 July 14, 2014 AuRiesheaua Bell CMS Expansion to Bundled Payments There are many articles that discusses different issues in health care reform. Recently, an article discussed about how hospitals, nursing homes and healthcare providers are ready to join Medicare’s test of bundled payments. According to the CMS website bundled payments is defined as, “Four broadly defined models of care, which link payments for multiple services beneficiaries receive during an episode of care.” (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid, 2014) The models consists of different focuses, which include acute care inpatient hospitalization, retrospective and prospective arrangements. The idea behind bundled payment is to increase quality of care and lower costs for Medicare. The fee for service model has been scrutinized by many who believe that it has perverse incentives for organizations to not efficiently provide care. According to the article, a reported 100 organizations are currently participating in the program; however the success of the organizations are unclear. The bundled payment initiative was introduced in 2013 under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act as an effort to shift financing of healthcare away from paying for each procedure. The bundled payments initiative is still in its infancy, so results are not solid; however many experts and officials say that it holds promise. Currently the initiative is in the......

Words: 342 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Business Expansion

...The Process of Expanding a Business into a New Region Author’s Name Institutional Affiliation The Process of Expanding a Business into a New Region Business expansion gets defined as the process of enlarging the operations of an enterprise either by launching new products or building more branches. Each year, thousands of companies consider exploring new markets by expanding their operations into new geographical locations. According to Awe (2006) the drive to enjoy high-profit returns, and economies of scale are some of the primary reasons why companies keep migrating from one region to another. Stiff competition within the domestic markets may also force some firms to seek alternative markets. Given the importance of this process to the future of an expanding company, it is critical for the firm to take into account a number of the factors. This research investigates the importance of political forces, socio-cultural variables, and economic factors in the expansion process. The role of politics in promoting economic growth cannot be overlooked. Kay (2013) compared the economic performance of different countries with their levels of political democracy. The survey established that countries characterized by high degrees of political stability, goodwill, and democracy had better economic development statistics. In particular, the study compared the economic performance of Ukraine (a politically unstable country) and Uzbekistan (a stable country) over the......

Words: 684 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Airport Expansion

...announced a £50 million expansion to triple its space for long-haul aircraft during a visit by Prime Minister David Cameron. Scotland’s busiest terminal, which handles 10 million passengers a year, will build a second baggage reclaim area and immigration hall to cater for hoped-for further growth in long-distance flights. The work also includes new stands for aircraft to park, and “air bridges” to link them to the terminal. Construction starts next week and will take four years, with 50 jobs being created. Edinburgh’s long-haul traffic increased by 90 per cent last year thanks to new and expanded routes such as the capital’s first Middle East link, by Qatar Airways to Doha. United Airlines started operating to Chicago, and US Airways to Philadelphia, which will be switched to New York this summer. Etihad Airways launches flights to Abu Dhabi in June. Airport chief executive Gordon Dewar said: “The work we’ll be carrying out over the next four years will transform our airside facilities, tripling our capacity to handle bigger aircraft and paving the way for the next ten years of increased international connectivity. “We’ll effectively be creating a new international facility for our airlines, and underpinning our future aspirations to increase passenger numbers, enhance their experience and be one of the leading European airports for our size.” Mr Cameron, who was in Scotland to publish legislation for further powers for Scotland, said: “The expansion of Edinburgh......

Words: 284 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Nato

...NATO: A Global Organization By Radonda Beauchamp Sr. ETH/316 February 3, 2015 Randy Howell There are many organizations with multinational parties involved but a major organization is NATO. NATO stands for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. It is put in place to safeguard the security and freedom of the members through military and political measurements. This organization has been around for many decades and will continue to be around for many to come. In the following ethical and cultural views will be examined, social responsibilities and how the stakeholders make unanimous agreements among the organization. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was established in 1949. In fact, the Alliance’s creation was part of a broader effort to serve three main purposes: deterring expansion of the Soviet Union, forbidding the revival of nationalist militarism in Europe through a strong North American presence on the continent, and to encourage integration of European politics. (NATO.int, 2014) NATO consists of 28 countries. When the organization originally started in 1949 it consisted of 12 founding members of the Alliance: Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom and the United States. After many years these countries joined as well: Greece and Turkey (1952), Germany (1955), Spain (1982), the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland (1999), Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania,......

Words: 1243 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Business Expansion

...The Institute of Chartered Accountants in Australia Incorporated in Australia Members’ Liability Limited. 0910-37 ABN 75 288 172 749 Ernst & Young. Business briefing series 20 issues for businesses expanding internationally Anyone who has made the bold step of starting their own business has at some stage dreamed about taking that business offshore in a bid for increased expansion and to generate additional revenue. Although ambitious and potentially very lucrative, such a move could also prove very costly if not done correctly. To assist business leaders with the process of taking on globalisation, the Institute of Chartered Accountants in Australia (the Institute), in conjunction with Ernst & Young (EY) has produced this thought leadership paper entitled Business briefing: 20 issues for businesses expanding internationally. The publication is the third part of the Institute’s Business Briefing series designed to help businesses to successfully navigate challenging issues. The commentary in the report is divided into three key phases of an international expansion project: • Planning for expansion • Choosing your location • Conducting business overseas. Business briefing: 20 issues for businesses expanding internationally has been written and presented in such a way as to maximise the reader’s understanding of the issues. Each of the three sections contains a series of pull-out boxes which guide the reader as to the types of questions that they should be asking with......

Words: 9534 - Pages: 39

Free Essay

Expansion

...Expansion & Diversification Presented by Case Background Carlsberg Incorporated in 1969. Came to Malaysia after two years incorporated through brewing Carlsberg Green Label beer for Malaysian Market. Carlsberg Brewery Malaysia Bhd (Carlsberg) market leading company that hold 50% shares of beer and stout market. Owned by the Carlsberg Group of Denmark. Cont... Carlsberg Malaysia Sdn. Bhd. one of the subsidiary that wholly owned become main marketed locally product. Carlsberg enter into many investment and acquisition through all the years. Competitor in the same industry Guinness Anchor Bhd. Case Background ABC Consulting Sdn Bhd Consist of David as one of the consultant and Robert Stanley as a Head of the company. Specialised in business turnaround. Mr. Stanley suggested that the company to focus more on cash-rich company that want to expand, diversify or venture. David grab the opportunity by looking beer and stout company and found that Carlsberg Company as a target. Cont... By looking through Carlsberg position, David feels that expanding is not worth it and cannot able to sustained their profit. He prepared himself with information before approaching Calrsberg company regarding the diversification activities. Also take and opportunity by selling his idea of manucfacturing sparkle grape juice (halal product) once the Carlsberg company tend to choose to diverse by taking Guinness as an example. ABANG MUHAMAD ZAIM BIN ABANG ALI......

Words: 981 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

As Nato Continues to Expand, Russia Sees Little Cause for Joy

...As NATO continues to expand, Russia sees little cause for joy Nowadays, NATO is in the middle of a confused debate about its identity and role. In particularly about how it will affect relations with Russia, the security of Ukraine and the Baltic States, and the peaceful integration of Ukraine into Europe. More and more voices are being raised in the United States against this policy and therefore my claim is: NATO must not expand any further towards Eastern Europe. NATO stands for North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. The fundamental role of NATO is to ensure the freedom and security of its member countries. It is one of the foundations on which the stability and security of the Euro-Atlantic area depends and it serves as an essential forum for consultations on matters affecting the security interests of all its members. Its first task is to defend against any threat of aggression. Russia has a very clear opinion on this debate. In the first place, NATO expansion is seen as a betrayal of unrealised promises made by the West in 1990-1991, and also as a sign that the West regards Russia not as an ally, but as a defeated enemy. Russians point out that Moscow agreed to withdraw troops from the former East Germany after NATO promised not to station its troops there. But now NATO has crossed over eastern Germany and ended up 500 miles closer to Russia, in Poland. In the second place, Russians fear that the inclusion of the Baltic States and Ukraine within NATO, will ultimately...

Words: 979 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Expansion-Physics

...Expansion Most substances expand when they are heated and contract when they are cooled. Heat causes expansion because it increases the vibrations of the atoms or molecules of a substance. The increased vibration forces the atoms or molecules further apart and the substance becomes larger, i.e. expands. When the substance cools down, it becomes smaller, i.e. contracts. Expansion and Contraction of Solids Solids expand in all directions when heated but the amount of expansion is usually very small. [pic] The above experiments show that: after heating, the metal expands and will not fit into the gauge in either length or diameter; after heating, the ring expands an will let the ball pass through it; when the metal rod is heated, the pointer is pushed to the right indicating expansion. Force of Expansion and Contraction If there is an obstruction to the free movement of an expanding or contracting body, very large forces may be set up. These forces can be useful but they can be destructive as well. The steel bar in Figure 2 is held by a cast iron pin at one end. When the bar is heated, it expands and the nut is tightened to ensure the rod is firmly held. The rod is then allowed to cool snapping the pin as it contracts. [pic] Expansion of Various Solids When rods of the same length but different substances are heated through the same increase in temperature, they expand by different amounts. Table 1 shows the expansion of metre –long rods of...

Words: 846 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Expansion and Merger

...Expansion and Merger Explain why government regulation is needed, citing the major reasons for government Involvement in a market economy. It is significant for the companies and organizations to concern all legal and law regulatory authorities before mergers and acquisitions. There are comprehensive requirement that authorizes the company to intervene in any action that could lead towards merger and acquisition. This is for the benefits for all the organization in case for instances in some mishaps the government could take some legal actions against the transaction. The other thing is that there are certain laws, in case of the international mergers, the tax policies and trading policies should be practiced in order to regulate and the actions can be practiced easily. This is done in order to do the system aligned so that all the beneficiaries could follow the same standardized rules and regulations. Justify the rationale for the intervention of government in the market process in the U.S. Market processes are the most complex process in terms of mergers and acquisitions in the U.S; this is the reason why the government of U.S focus more on mergers and acquisitions of market processes. The government could also intervene in order to regulate the resources and allocate the right amount of the resources for the improvement in the economies and social welfare. The government wanted to improve and correct the failures that have been taking place all over the...

Words: 1491 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

International Expansion

...MGMT415 Unit 1 Assignment International Expansion Many companies today want to expand their business to the international business, which can bring cost down and profits up. Taking a business internationally means knowing the rules and regulations of the countries you are entering. There can be many issues with going global which include cultural barriers, diversity issues, multicultural issues, political issues, and economical issues. It is very important to know how important expansion is to the company and what implications will come from going global. Some of the issues that can arise in the host foreign country could face as a result of a global expansion are provisions for the occupant of good health, decent education, opportunities for promotion, decent house, employment, adequate income, and personal and national security. One benefit to the other nations is the rapidly expanding internet, which holds promise for developing nations. Its capabilities include communication and information delivery made easier and faster, and the nations gain from the revolution. However, the same benefits for developing nations are not the same in developed nations where transportation and communications are already established. These benefits serve all sectors of society such as education, government, science, health, and technology. These computers and networks are technologies that have to be absorbed and utilized in an internal and external way. The internal factors can......

Words: 1029 - Pages: 5