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Fossil fuel costs are soaring. Natural Resources are being consumed at an alarming rate (EPA, Watersense). Last summer the State of Georgia almost ran out of drinking water. Here in Chicago most suburbs are on an odd-even watering program all summer. Global warming has become a concern for most people in the world. Landfills are filling up quickly. Environmental concerns are plaguing the planet. Until new energy resources are found and implemented there is only one answer, Green building. What is Green building? In simple terms it is the practice of constructing buildings and homes with more efficiency and to create less of an impact on our resources and our environment. Governments throughout the world are becoming more involved with their ecosystems and establishing guidelines for businesses and industry to follow. By adopting the strategies of Green building we can make the world a cleaner and healthier place to live.
Green building is the practice of increasing the efficiency of buildings and their use of energy, water, and materials while reducing building impacts on human health and the environment through better design, construction, operation, maintenance and demolition (EPA, Green building). Whereas a good design is important in Green building, the actual operation and maintenance of a building has a huge impact on human health. It has become so important that building councils and rating systems have been established by the United States and across the world. Green building has brought into practice new construction techniques and practices along with new ideas and products to try reduce and eventually eliminate the impact of buildings on the environment. Green construction can be established at any phase of construction or even after a building is completed.
In the United States alone buildings account for 39% of all energy use, 12% of total water consumption, 68% of total electricity consumption and 38% of total carbon dioxide emissions (EPA, Green building). Across the country our growing population is putting major stress on our water supply. Since 1950 the population of the U.S. has almost doubled and the public demand for water has increased right along with it. Water is becoming a national priority. Surveys have shown that by 2013 over half of the United States will be anticipating a water shortage (EPA, Green building). Buildings also have an impact on human health. A typical building can have anywhere from five to one hundred times more pollutants than outdoor air (USGBC). In recent history a school in St. Charles was closed due to mold issues causing students to become ill. The interest in Green building has been dramatically growing for years. People have become alarmed over the news about mold issues in schools and their homes. Most building products, consumer goods and even furniture have some form of toxic chemicals that seep into our homes. The average family spends 90% of its time indoors, either at home or school or work (Wilson, 7). We want these places to be safe, not make us sick. With rising costs of operating homes consumers are becoming concerned with cutting energy use but still be comfortable and safe. Green homes are cheaper to operate, the materials are low maintenance and there energy use is low. Everyone benefits from Green building, from the people who make and work with the product to the homeowners that live with these materials. With these products manufacturers and construction companies save money by not being required to have special handling procedures or equipment. If workers stay healthier there is less lost time on sick leave. The same should be said about our home environment, Asthma has been on the rise and medical experts are blaming the chemicals and plasticizers used in the construction of homes. These chemicals are beginning to appear in humans worldwide and are considered to be the cause of some developmental and behavior problems (Wilson, 25).
The words high performance, green, and sustainable construction are often used together when discussing green building, however sustainable construction is a term that is being used more today by organizations and construction in general. In 1994 an international construction research network defined sustainable construction as “…creating and operating a healthy built environment based on resource efficiency and ecological design” (Kibert, 10). The organization called The Conseil International du Batiment (CIB), designed what they called the Seven Principles of Sustainable Construction, a list of factors that should be used in each phase of a construction process, from its design to its demolition.

The Seven Principles of Sustainable Construction; 1) Reduce resource consumption 2) Reuse resources 3) Use recyclable resources 4) Protect nature 5) Eliminate toxics 6) Apply life-cycle costing 7) Focus on quality (Kibert, 9)
LEED stands for Leadership in Energy and Design. It is a rating system used in the construction and operation performance of commercial and residential buildings. Beginning in 1994, the rating system was first developed by the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). It wasn’t until the United States Green Building Council (USGBC) was developed that the rating system began to be used. The membership was looking for a way to standardize a green building rating system that would satisfy all aspects of the building industry. The USGBC was financed by the government but is considered a nongovernmental organization. In the development of LEED, members of the USGBC felt that the rating system had to be accepted by building owners in both the private and public sector in order for it to work. This was done by marketing, stating that Green buildings would have a higher resale value along with the save the environment philosophy. Thanks to government influence tax incentives also play a big part in becoming LEED Certified. LEED was produced by a collaboration of people from all aspects of industry, colleges and government organizations such as U.S. Department of Energy.
The LEED rating system is not just one standard but a suite of standards covering all aspects of construction: * LEED-NC (New Construction) * LEED-EB (Existing Buildings) * LEED-CI (Commercial Interiors) * LEED-H (Homes) * LEED-CS (Core and Shell Projects) * LEED-ND (Neighborhood Development) (Kibert, 74)

LEED-NC 1.0 for commercial buildings was developed in 1998. 20 buildings used this process to become certified as Platinum, Gold, Silver, or Bronze. By 2002 84 buildings became certified using the updated LEED-NC 2.1 version. A LEED-NC 3.0 version is in the works however no firm date has been set when it will be available. In order to become LEED Certified the structure must address several conditions with a maximum of 69 points divided among six categories. * Sustainable Sites (14 points) * Energy and Atmosphere (17 points) * Water Efficiency (5 points) * Materials and Resources (13 points) * Indoor Environmental Quality (15 points) * Innovation and Design Process (5 points) The number of points given in a category is based solely on the judgment of the developers. (Kibert, 74)
Land is becoming a priceless resource. Sustainable Sites covers a wide area of topics that lead to the appropriate use of the land. The basic idea is to create less of a human footprint on the land or preserve the land to its original state as much as possible.. This can be done by new innovations in design, landscape or using areas, (brownfields) that have been already contaminated and bringing these areas back to productive use.

Design strategy for Sustainable Sites, Soil and Erosion Control- Keeping topsoil on location and not in the storm sewers Site Selection – Try to use land that has been used before, not land that is considered valuable from an ecological point of view. Urban Redevelopment- Developing sites in Urban or poorly developed areas. Brownfield Redevelopment- Developing areas that are considered contaminated. Alternative Transportation- Public Transportation Access – Alternative Transportation-Bicycle Storage, Changing Room- Alternative Refueling Stations- Parking Capacity
Reduced Site Disturbance- Restore and protect open spaces by using native plants that are adapted to the climate and weather zone. Development Footprint- Reducing the size of homes and minimizing the human footprint during and after construction.
Stormwater Management- Rate of Quantity- Using new technologies such as pervious pavement and other procedures that assist in groundwater retention. Water Treatment- Filtering stormwater before it enters the environment.
Landscape and Exterior Design to reduce Heat Islands- Non roof- using light colored pavers and concrete for driveways and walkways Roof- Using light colored roofing material and landscape on roofs to reduce heat.
These strategies are just a brief overview into what is involved for LEED certification. Each item mentioned is worth a credit or point. The use of these items in the design of a building are totaled together and the final point standing is accredited to the proper category (Kibert, 75). The design of high performance buildings is a major challenge for designers. With resources being consumed at an all time high it is time to find a cheap renewable energy source in which the population can live comfortably. So far no one has come up with an alternative energy source for our consumption of fossil fuels. In 2002 80 million buildings in the United States consumed about 36 percent of the countries primary energy (Sustainable Construction). The environmental impact from generating this energy is global climate change, acid rain and other health effects caused by the emission of gases from generating plants. The consumption of energy by buildings in 2002 is to have contributed: * 47 percent of sulfur dioxide emissions. * 22 percent of nitrogen oxide emissions * 35 percent of carbon dioxide emissions. (Kibert, 181)
The future forecast shows that the situation will only get worse. With more people in the world and the development of third world countries the emissions put into the air will only increase. A federal government program proposes a reduction in energy use in buildings of 20 percent by 2010. To accomplish this new technology and innovations need to be developed. The perfect green building uses little energy and a renewable energy would be the source of most energy needed to heat, cool, and circulate air in a building. Federal and State buildings are now using high performance technology to save energy and cut costs.

The Design Strategy of High Performance Buildings. * Use new technology and software to assist designers in minimizing energy consumption. * Optimize the passive solar design of a building * Maximize the thermal performance of a building. * Minimize internal building loads * Design an efficient heating and cooling system that minimizes energy use * Incorporate renewable energy use to the maximum extent possible * Incorporate new ideas and emerging technology where possible and feasible. (Kibert, 180)
These strategies can be expensive and exceptions or tradeoffs may be required to keep a building under budget. That would be up to the owner and design team. In most instances an excellent passive solar design and building envelope design can reduce the cost of an efficient heating and cooling design system (Kibert, 183) Fresh water is the most critical resource known to man. Water is required to sustain life and to survive. In most of the world freshwater comes from underground aquifers that take hundreds of years to be replenished. Last year the state of Georgia was under a severe drought with lakes drying up and drinking water was at a premium. Most local municipalities are under strict odd-even water restrictions from June thru September. In the United States water use is four times higher than the rest of the World with the average daily consumption being 100 gallons. Commercial buildings in the U.S. account for 12% of total water consumption. A rethinking process is in the works. With the invention of the toilet an unfortunate trend has developed. In order to dispense human waste a large amount of clean potable water is required. This wastes an enormous amount of water taxing waste water treatment plants and contributing to our water shortage. Building codes have recently been up updated to try and lower the levels of water consumption. Green buildings attempt to improve on these restrictions even more.
Strategy for High Performance Building Water Consumption. * Energy Savings: money can be saved by reducing the energy needed to move process and treat water than the actual value of the water itself. * Reduced wastewater production: reducing water consumption also reduces wastewater generation, lowering the cost for building owners. * Lower facilities services investments: designing water-efficient buildings reduces the costs of water and wastewater design. * Higher worker productivity: facilities that incorporate resource efficiency measures are known to have a more productive workforce * Improved industrial process: innovations in water use in production systems can result in new processes and approaches. * Reduced financial risk: Implementing water efficiency can be accommodating as needed, thus reducing costs and risks for large facilities. * Environmental benefits: lowering water consumption results in reduced impact on natural systems. * Public relations value: Protecting the environment is looked upon favorably by the general public and clients. (Kibert, 248)
The use of new and improved fixtures can have a large impact on water consumption. Low flow toilets and waterless urinals can cut water consumption in half. Rain water harvesting has grown in popularity lately and is an easy an economical way of saving water (Kibert, 252). Growing consciousness over Global Warming is helping people understand the importance of green building products. The impact of climate change is going to be a lot more apparent in the coming years and that will cause an increase in the purchasing decisions of consumers. Examining health and environmental impacts of products is called a Life Cycle Assessment. The assessment examines the product from the beginning of a product, in its natural state, to the end, where the product is no longer useful and must become a raw material for something else or recycled. Things that are examined are the methods the raw material is being extracted, the manufacture of the material, the use of a material and the disposal of the material after it has outlived its usefulness. A green product is a product whose environmental impact is low. An example would be a floor tile made from recycled glass; it is considered a green product because it keeps the glass out of landfills and is considered a waste material.
Choosing the right product is only one part of Green building, other issues; * Energy-efficient design and construction – how much insulation is used and how efficiently air leaks are controlled. * House size, not building a home larger than needed. * Where the house is built, so that automobile use can be minimized, natural areas can be protected and locating the house on the property to use the sun more efficiently. * Design and construction detailing to avoid moisture problems, the leading cause of poor indoor air quality in homes. (Wilson, 25).
These other issues are just as important as selecting green products. A house could be built with all green products yet not be energy efficient or built much bigger than necessary. A very large challenge in choosing products is finding a balance in all these other considerations. A product could be made of recycled material yet it may release harmful toxins when exposed to certain temperatures (Wilson, 27). Some of the product selection criteria used nowadays has been developed by different non- profit organizations. The National Institute of Standards and Technology has developed BEES (Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability). BEES are a life-cycle assessment software that helps architects and engineers understand the health concerns of products. It is still in the early stages of development but promises to have an impact as more products are introduced into its database (Wilson, 32). The Athena Sustainable Materials Institute is compiling a public database of life-cycle information. The database is to include all information such as the environmental impact the product has from using that product as a building material and other generic products that can be used in place of the material. Other organizations such as The Scientific Certification System, Green Seal, Greenblue, and The Institute for Market Transformation to sustainability are developing new standards for specific products such as carpet and textiles (Wilson, 45). GreenSpec is the largest national directory of green building products. The intent of Greenspec is to bring to light the greenest building products. Decisions about what products are to be included in the directory are not influenced by manufacturers but are based on criteria developed by the GreenSpec and Environmental Building News editorial team.
Basic product criteria for green building,
Products made with Salvaged, Recycled, or Agricultural Waste Content * Salvaged Products, the reuse of products such as framing lumber, bricks, plumbing fixtures and period hardware. * Products with post-consumer recycled content, rubber flooring made from recycled tires. * Products with post-industrial recycled content, fly ash from coal burning chimneys used in making concrete, PVC scrap used in making shingles. * Products made from agricultural waste, straw, rice hulls and sunflower seed hulls used in some building products * Products that conserve natural resources. * Products that reduce material use, products made from rapidly renewable resources. * Products with exceptional durability or low maintenance requirements, fiberglass windows, fiber cement siding and slate shingles * Certified wood products, engineered lumber, particle board and medium density fiberboard as long as no toxic binders are used * Rapidly renewable products, wood products have a harvest rotation of ten years or less, bamboo, plant oils, and textiles like cotton, wood, and sisal. * Products that avoid toxic or other emissions. * Alternatives to conventional preservatives. * Natural or minimally processed products, stone and slate shingles * Alternatives to ozone depleting products. * Alternatives to products made with PVC, most PVC products are made with 40% chlorine. * Alternatives to other components considered hazardous, fluorescent lamps with low levels of mercury are considered green. * Products that reduce or eliminate pesticide treatments, borate treated building products, physical termite barriers. * Products that reduce pollution or waste from operations, recycle bins, compost systems, and green roof systems. * Products that reduce environmental impact during construction, demolition and renovation. * Products that reduce the impact of new construction, erosion control products, exterior stains that have lower VOC emissions. * Products that reduce the impact of demolition. * Products that reduce the impact of renovation, modular carpets allows rooms to be reconfigured with buying new carpeting every time. * Products that save energy or water. * Building components that reduce heating and cooling loads, insulated concrete forms and blocks, high performance windows. * Equipment that conserves energy, GreenSpec carries a higher energy performance specification than Energy Star, the standard most manufacturers follow. * Renewable energy and fuel cell equipment, wind power, solar water heaters, solar photovoltaic systems. * Fixtures and equipment that conserve water, toilets and showerheads that meet or exceed federal water efficiency standards. Rain water catchment systems. * Products that contribute to a safe, healthy indoor environment, * Products that don’t release significant pollutants into building, eco-friendly paints, varnishes, adhesives and caulk. * Products that block the introduction, production or spread of indoor contaminants. * Products that remove indoor pollutants. Ventilation systems, filters and other equipment that removes pollutants or introduces fresh air. * Products that warn occupants of health hazards, carbon monoxide detectors and other indoor air quality test kits. * Products that improve light quality, products that introduce more sunlight into the home such as tubular skylights. (Wilson, 45)
With organizations evolving into the green building world, there are many products out there that would qualify as a green product but have yet to be included. The list of products is updated daily and is in reach of the local consumers as long as he knows where to look. The California Division of the State Architect is in the process of developing standards for 20 different product categories (Dougal, 1).
Poor indoor air quality has a profound effect on the health of employees and students in commercial buildings and in their homes. It can lead to asthma and on a short term basis poor air quality can lead to fatigue and nausea. More than 53 million students and about 6 million students spend a considerable amount of time in the 120,000 different school systems in the United States (USGBC, 2007). Most of these buildings are in poor condition due to age and have health issues that hinder learning and pose serious risks to staff and students. Asbestos and chemicals used in the construction of older schools and offices increase the health risks to the inhabitants. Construction practices over the past 30 years have changed. Building envelopes became more sealed trapping moisture and contaminants in a building. Mold has become an increasing concern and in recent years caused a High School in St. Charles to close (USGBC, 2007).
The USGBC has developed a new website filled with information for students, parents and faculty to ensure the development of green building and LEED Certification in schools in their area. The new site, Build Green Schools (www.buildgreenschools.org) was designed to promote a healthier environment to ensure the productivity of students. Studies have shown that green schools save an average of $100,000 per year in energy costs and water consumption (USGBC). The goal of the website is to inform communities the advantages of LEED and give people the knowledge to speak to their Representatives about building LEED certified schools in their neighborhood. As of 2007 there are 60 LEED certified schools in the United States and 350 in the LEED certification process (Kadleck, 22).
Indoor air quality is a major issue for green building. Keeping employees healthy can cut business cost in terms of missed days of work along with medical costs. Some areas people do not associate with green building are interior materials and furnishings. Most interior finishes are made with some kind of toxic chemical or glue. These materials give off emissions that reduce the air quality in a building. The LEED rating system takes this into account and awards points for buildings that are using low-emission materials in their design.
Climate control is the general intention of all (HVAC) Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning systems. A poorly designed system can lead to higher fuel costs along with inadequate ventilation causing contamination of the area. Systems vary building to building; a typical HVAC system uses air handlers, air chillers and boilers or a forced air. The responsibility of these systems is to condition the air to ensure proper temperature and humidity levels are met. The system can be a source of numerous airborne contaminants. Ductwork not sealed properly can allow spores and mildew to enter the system. High humidity levels accelerate the production of mold, often hidden in heating and cooling systems because of their location in ceilings.
Best practices for Indoor air quality, * Find the relationship between indoor air pollution sources, ventilation, and concentrations. * A simple dose response basis for health effects * Overall design consideration of indoor air quality from the beginning of a building to the end. * Source identification. * Source control options and strategies. * Ventilation system design and operation * Material selection and specification * Construction procedures. * Maintenance and operation. * Change of use, renovation, adaptive reuse, and demounting. (Kibert, 336)
The green building standards such as LEED focuses more on indoor air quality however indoor lighting and noise also play a part in the health effects of a building. A number of new products for interior design have emerged recently; among them are paints, carpeting, and adhesives that have zero or low emissions. The proper sizing of a HVAC system is very important and should be done by a professional. Day lighting has become progressively more important because it has shown an enhancement in human health benefits. Providing students and employees a view to the outside has become a component of LEED certification (Kibert, 185).
The role of a construction team is to make a design phase a reality. Green building plays an important role in this area. The LEED certification process spells out what is required from the construction team to keep a building on a path of certification. With the idea of creating less of a human footprint on the environment of the building itself, the construction team is responsible for limiting the human footprint during all phases of deconstruction and construction.
Some examples; * Improving material handling to reduce construction waste. * Recycling of site materials such as topsoil, lime rock, asphalt and concrete into a new building project. * Making provisions for installing products and materials to reduce the potential for indoor air quality problems. * Extensive training of subcontractors in construction waste management. * Paying attention to moisture control in all aspects of construction to prevent future mold problems. * Insuring stringent erosion and sedimentation control measures are instituted. * Minimizing the impact of construction operations, such as compaction and unnecessary destruction of trees, on the site (Kibert, 353).
A site protection plan should be developed before a project begins. Everyone involved with the building needs to be on the same page. With subcontractors, enforcement can be difficult. Foremen need to understand what is expected and make sure the crew adheres to the policy. Scheduling plays an important role in site protection planning. With limited accessibility in some areas the daily delivery of materials must be fine tuned so that the area designated for storage is not overfilled and spills over into other site sensitive areas that are to be left untouched.
Even with the construction phase of a project the health and safety of its workers is just as important as the future tenants of a building. Plans should be in place to mitigate dust, smoke and other odors. Strict enforcement needs to be upheld. In the masonry area, Silicosis is a major health concern among the workers. It is caused by dry cutting masonry materials and the mixing of ingredients to make mortar. Most of these health issues can be avoided if companies were given stricter on site regulations and penalties. In some large cities it has become part of the contract documents that contractors produce a Health and Safety Plan (Kibert, 89).
Construction and demolition (CD) is an area of grave concern in green building. It is estimated that 35 to 40 percent of all waste that enters landfills is from the construction or demolition of buildings (EPA.gov). Recyclable products such as concrete, metals, drywall, and wood add up to almost 75% of the total construction waste pour out. A new word “deconstruction” has evolved that is working its way into the industry. Rather than knocking down buildings and hauling them away, deconstruction requires buildings to be taken apart piece by piece and hauled off to recycling centers. This procedure has been met with some resistance due to the high cost of labor. It is much easier and faster to demolish a building with a large bulldozer than using a crew and sorting out debris.
Santa Monica Green building Program has a system in place that should be a guideline for all municipalities to follow. The website covers everything from environmental issues to guidelines to meet LEED certification. The reuse of materials keeps construction materials out of landfills and helps conserve natural resources. An example is the reuse of concrete and brick, rather than hauling it away to a dump site, the guidelines suggests that the material should be kept onsite and crushed to be used for gravel and stone in parking lots and under concrete floors. This also keeps gravel or stone from being mined and is considered a win situation (Santa Monica Green Building Program).
All construction projects produce waste during all phases of construction. For a green building project to meet the proper criteria, subcontractors need to trained and made aware of how these projects vary from a conventional construction project. Job-site training is absolutely necessary and becomes the responsibility of the Construction Manager and the General Contractor. * Construction Waste Site Plan. The training and input of a plan should be produced at the beginning of a project and should have the input of all contractors involved. All workers should be informed and trained to the proper handling and procedures for minimizing waste. * Subcontractors can create hazards in the air that can affect the health and safety of the future tenants. Proper protection of all air handling equipment and systems can help to reduce dust and mold from entering a building (Kibert, 359).
The use of a proper Waste Protection plan and Site Protection Plan can be the difference of awarding a job to a contractor. Several obligations need to be met to ensure LEED Certification.
Reducing the Footprint of Construction Operations, * Document the site’s existing natural and historical cultural features and make plans to preserve them. * Specify location of trailers and equipment. * Specify areas of the site that should be kept free of traffic, equipment and storage. * Prohibit the clearing of vegetation beyond 40 feet from the building perimeter. * Explain methods for protecting vegetation such as designating access routes and parking. * Require methods for clearing and grading the site that are as low impact as possible. * Examine how runoff may affect a site. Use storm water management and proper erosion manage to manage runoff until building is complete (Kibert, 361)
Green building as with any other new development also has a down side, cost. With developers and contractors being unfamiliar with LEED practices, experts say there is anywhere from a 1 to 15 percent increase in cost in the construction phase of a building. The question is; will energy savings be enough to offset these costs? 10 federal agencies and 19 states have adopted green building standards for use in future public building projects. The cost of what this new practice brings is just starting to surface. Chicago, a leader in green building practices and LEED certification has set a standard of all new public buildings receiving a LEED Silver rating by 2006. The Green leader is also in the middle of a study of how to quantify the extra cost. In other words, where do the costs come from and how to better manage cost in the future. To help encourage green building, city officials have cut the amount of time it takes to grant a permit in half for LEED Silver rated buildings (Hatfield, 10)
Becoming LEED certified is a time consuming and at times, expensive benefit for owners and contractors. Costs to register a building for certification range anywhere from $3000 and up. Expedited certification can go as high as $10,000. In just 5 short years LEED Certification has become a global topic of interest. Tom Coleman, a Project Manager for Castle Construction says, “Green Building is here to stay, whether you like it or not, as a construction manager it is important to know what it is and understand the Certification Process.” Tom has worked as a Project Manager on several new Chicago Police Department building in the city. “Every step of the construction process needs to be analyzed and double checked to make sure all constraints of the certification process are being followed. Failure to do so could cost the company millions or cause an unfulfilled goal.” (Coleman).
Owners in both the public and private sector have embraced green building practices. The LEED process has become the industry standard although some officials believe it to be too expensive and cumbersome (Fulmer, 32). In Park City, Utah a 4.8 million dollar ice arena was built to LEED standards, however the USGBC plaque was going to cost $27,500. Officials decided it would be wiser to spend the money in other areas and purchased 3 wind turbines able to produce enough power to charge the Zamboni used to clean the ice. Everyone agrees that standards are a good idea; it’s just getting there that can be an issue. When building a LEED Certified building people are already paying top dollar to establish guidelines. Paying an additional 3 to 5 percent for a Certification Plaque is ridiculous (Fulmer, 32). The State of Utah has adopted its own certification process thru The Division of Facilities and Construction Management (DFCM). The rating system is different than LEED in that it rates performance through the selection of materials and takes into account the building as a whole, not specific sections as LEED. The decision to become LEED certified is decided by the owner of a building in the initial phase of the construction process. Most projects can now be registered online at the USGBC website. For a building to become officially certified the project team must ensure that the intent of the building has met LEED requirements and submit evidence to that effect. Once registration has been accomplished, the project team will receive an orientation letter that explains the LEED certification process and access to resources to help the process along. A letter template is used to make it easier for teams to provide data on a project for its review. Once all this is complete, design teams prepare documentation to satisfy prerequisites and credit requirements. A LEED accredited professional is a helpful member of this team. The accredited professional is a building professional who is specifically trained in the LEED certification process (Kibert, 73). A complete LEED application will provide the following; * All documentation compiled and organized in a 3 ring binder using the proper templates that were provided. * A LEED project scorecard indicating prerequisites and the final anticipated score of the project. * The LEED letter template for each prerequisite and credit, separated by tabs.(Kibert, 80)
Once the project has been registered and documentation confirmed the USGDC examines submissions in a four step process. * Administrative Review- Examines documentation and notifies the project team of any deficiencies found in the submission. * Technical Review- Reviews submittals and corrected documentation and informs the project team of its preliminary evaluation. * Final Review- Informs project team of rating decision. * Appeals Process- The project team can contest the decision and areas in which points were not awarded (Kibert, 77) With Green Building comes a new age in construction. The biggest question is will it be accepted and can it be made affordable. High performance buildings make sense, not only for new construction, the LEED process can be used in all aspects of construction, from residential to remodeling. Establishing guidelines gives contractors and designers a starting point. Is LEED perfect? No, it still needs some work and is upgraded almost yearly. Having someone familiar with the accreditation system can make the process easier. The United States Green Building Council has Chapters located all over the country and has even become the standard in which other countries are trying to duplicate. The biggest issue with Green building is education. How can it be used if it is not understood by the public? The USGBC is working on that with a website that covers all aspects of construction and workshops weekly that keep members up to date on new technologies and new practices.
With the cost of construction today, owners are looking for low cost when it comes to building a home or building. The construction process is carried out quickly and at the cheapest price possible. The typical thing to do is demolish buildings and send them to the landfills. This has to stop. Altering the mindset of owners and contractors will be an enormous challenge. With the soaring costs of energy and the raping of our natural resources it is a challenge that must take place.

Works Cited:
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pg 32,Vol 63,No 2.The LEED System. LexisNexis Academic. Westwood. 2 Jun <http://www.lexisnexis.com/us/lnacademic/returnTo.do?returnToKey=20_T3866 933896>. The article discusses the USGBC, the complications of the LEED process and the Green building Rating System.

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The website provides information and articles on LEED certification and accreditation. Sponsored by the U.S. Government, The USGBC is the standard in which other countries base their programs on.

Hatfield, Heather, Craig Barner, Robert Carlson, Alex Paldaka, and Lucy Bodilly. "Green Initiatives flourish across the U.S.." Engineering News-Record 13/11/2006: pg 10, vol 257. LEED in Schools. Lexus Nexus. Westwood Library. 7/07'2008 .

<http://www.lexisnexis.com/us/lnacademic/returnTo.do?returnToKey=20_T4109 864384> Article discusses the feasibility of green building and what is being done about it

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The website provides information and education on what is happening in our environment and articles written to keep people aware of current situations and laws and regulations implemented to create a cleaner environment.

Kadleck, Chrissy. "LEEDing the way; green schools for healthier pupils and planet ." Waste News 29/10/2007: 22. LEED in schools. Lexus Nexus. Westwood Library. 7 Jul 2008

<http://www.lexisnexis.com/us/lnacademic/results/docview/docview.do?docLinkI nd=true&risb=21_T4109063373&format=GNBFI&sort=RELEVANCE&startDo cNo=1&resultsUrlKey=29_T4109063376&cisb=22_T4109063375&treeMax=tru e&treeWidth=0&csi=224249&docNo=16>. Article discusses the new USGBC website and its benefits.

Kibert, Charles. Sustainable Construction green Building design and delivery Revised. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, 2007 October

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No Paper

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...Research or Interview Paper Instructions You can choose 1 of the following two options for your Research or Interview Paper. Your paper will be 7 double-spaced pages for the main content (not including the cover page and reference page). Your choices include: 1. A research paper Steps for writing the research paper: a) Choose a topic in Managerial Economics. b) Submit the topic and the outline of the paper to the instructor anytime for approval. c) A minimum of 3 references besides the textbook are required. Liberty University library has excellent resources for your search for journals. http://www.liberty.edu/index.cfm?PID=178 OR 2. An interview paper Steps for writing the interview paper: a) Choose a topic in Managerial Economics. b) Design at least 5 questions according to the topic. c) Submit your questions to the instructor for approval. d) Contact a local or non-local company for an interview. e) Conduct the interview for answers to your questions. f) The paper must have 3 parts: • The description of the company; • Interview questions and answers; and • Your comments. *The research paper is to be done individually, not as a group. **Do not wait until the last module/week to work on the paper. Do it as early as possible. ***A paper that was written for other classes would not be accepted......

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Leeds Case

...The Leeds Livery[1] Hugh Tudor had retired early from his position as office manager in a large company. At age 55; he had a reasonable pension and some capital that he had saved. Hugh had lived in Milville for 30 years and was reasonably well known in the community. He was active in a service club, on the executive of a soccer league and a hockey league, and worked with some local charities and fund-raising activities. He was a physically fit and active man who enjoyed challenges and was growing restless in his retirement. Hugh wanted to invest in a small business, not only to add to his income, but also as an entrepreneurial venture that would be challenging and interesting for him. He was considering buying The Leeds Livery, a British pub located in Milville. The pub was located on the edge of town, on the main road running through Milville. It was a five-minute walk from the GO train station. Milville is an Ontario town of 21,000 people. In recent years, its population has grown quite rapidly as people have moved from the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) into less crowded communities with lower real estate prices and a community lifestyle that suits them. Most of these recent arrivals are reasonably prosperous family people who commute daily to professional jobs in the GTA. The Leeds Livery is presently owned by Barry Bilkmore, who lives in Georgeburgh, which is 30 km from Milville. Bilkmore, who practices corporation law in Toronto, bought the pub as an......

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Science Paper

...project and program cause confusion. They are often used synonymously. A program is a group of related projects designed to accomplish a common goal over an extended period of time. Each project within a program has a project manager. The major differences lie in scale and time span. Program management is the process of managing a group of ongoing, interdependent, related projects in a coordinated way to achieve strategic objectives. For TABLE 1.1 Comparison of Routine Work with Projects Routine, Repetitive Work Projects Taking class notes Daily entering sales receipts into the accounting ledger Responding to a supply-chain request Practicing scales on the piano Routine manufacture of an Apple iPod Writing a term paper Setting up a sales kiosk for a professional accounting meeting Developing a supply-chain information system Writing a new piano piece Designing an iPod that is approximately 2 3 4 inches, interfaces with PC, and stores 10,000 songs Wire-tag projects for GE and Wal-Mart Attaching tags on a manufactured product Lar03342_ch01_002-021.indd Page 7 2/9/10 9:45:12 AM user-f498 /Users/user-f498/Desktop/TEMPWORK/February 2010/09:02/MHBR165:Larson:208 Chapter 1 Modern Project Management 7 example, a pharmaceutical organization could have a program for curing cancer. The cancer program includes and coordinates all cancer projects that continue over an extended time horizon. Coordinating all cancer projects under the......

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...culminates with an original research paper based on your historical research. The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze a historical event using concepts learned in class. | | Guidelines | | Identify a significant historical event that occurred between 1945 and 2008 that has had positive and/or negative consequences (e.g. the Truman Doctrine, the Arab-Israeli Six-Day War, 9/11, the war in Afghanistan, etc.), and defend your selection as a significant contemporary event. The paper should include the following. * Identify and describe the historical event. * Analyze the historical and contemporary causes of the event. * Analyze different historical interpretations of the event. * Evaluate the positive and negative outcomes of the event. The Final Paper should be 8–10 pages in length and use proper APA formatting. | | Deliverables | | Week 2: Selection and Defense of Topic Students will identify a significant historical event and briefly defend why the event is significant and worthy of study. The topic selection and defense is due at the end of this week. See Syllabus Due Dates for Assignments & Exams for due date information. Week 5: Annotated Bibliography This week, you will complete the annotated bibliography for your research paper. An annotated bibliography looks like a standard APA bibliography with the addition of annotations (2–3 sentence descriptions of how the source will contribute to your paper) after each......

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Leeds Inc

...Case Report: Saw Blades at Leeds Team II Raj Pandit Tiffany Rongey Jacob Tramontin Julian Vu Executive Summary This case examines the use of relevant and irrelevant costs to determine whether Leeds should continue production of Carbide blades, and whether or not to introduce composite blades. From our analysis, we have developed seven possible scenarios for the company, and have determined that our last scenario would most effectively utilize the remaining carbide inventory, while progressively entering the composite blade market. Background Leedsworks, Imperial Optronics PLC is the worldwide leader in the dry-cut lens processing equipment. They produce carbide blades made from a special steel alloy that can only be used for these blades. Barry Sullivan, the Leedsworks Division Executive, is now faced with a crucial financial decision due to a new competitor’s composite blade that has a higher quality, a longer lifespan, and developed from a cheaper material than their own carbide blade. There has always existed competition from European, American, and Asian firms; but, the composite blade is the newest technology for the industry that caught Leeds unprepared. Several of the company’s divisions will be affected by the decision on how to transfer over to the new blade. The demand is immediate, though the product will take at least six months to reach the market. Barry Sullivan must closely consider the irrelevant and......

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