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BEGINNING KOREAN: A GRAMMAR GUIDE
DAVID J. SILVA
THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT ARLINGTON DEPARTMENT OF LINGUISTICS AND TESOL

DRAFT: AUGUST 2004 DO NOT CITE.

Beginning Korean: A Grammar Guide

Getting Started in Korean
Note: This material is optional; ask your instructor / tutor if s/he would like to review these basic phrases during the first week of class.

Listen carefully as your instructor teaches you the following greetings and classroom instructions. Don’t worry about grammar. Rather, listen to how each of these phrases sounds, and associate the sounds with what they mean and then learn how you should respond in each case. Basic Greetings

안녕 하세요? annyeong haseyo?

Hello. / Greetings. (lit: Are you at peace?) - Yes. Hello / Greetings. Goodbye! Go well. (said to one leaving) Goodbye! Stay well. (said to one staying)

- 네. 안녕하세요? ne. annyeonghaseyo?

안녕히 가세요. annyeonghi gaseyo.

안녕히 계세요. annyeonghi gyeseyo.

Classroom Instructions

들으세요. deureuseyo. Listen(, please). Listen carefully(, please). Repeat (after me). Answer(, please). Speak up(, please). Speak louder(, please).

잘 들으세요. jal deureuseyo.

따라 하세요. ttara haseyo.

대답하세요. taedaphaseyo. 크게 말하세요. keuge malhaseyo.

더 크게 말하세요. deo keuge malhaseyo.

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일어나세요. ireonaseyo. Stand up(, please). Sit down(, please). Read(, please). Write (it down, please). Write it on the chalkboard(, please). Look at me(, please). Look at the chalkboard(, please). Open (your) book(, please).

앉으세요. anjeuseyo 읽으세요. ilgeuseyo. 쓰세요. sseuseyo. 칠판에 쓰세요. chilpane sseuseyo.

나를 보세요. nareul boseyo.

칠판을 보세요. chilpaneul boseyo.

책을 펴세요. chaekeul pyeoseyo.

네. ne. Yes.| No. Do you understand? - Yes, I understand. - No, I don’t understand.

아니오. aniyo. 알겠어요? algesseoyo? - 네, 알겠어요. ne, algesseoyo.

- 아니오, 모르겠어요. aniyo, moreugesseoyo.

질문 있어요? jilmun isseoyo?

Are there any questions? - Yes, I have a question. (lit: Yes, there is.) - No, I don’t have any questions.
(lit: No, there aren’t.)

- 네, 있어요. ne, isseoyo.

- 아니오, 없어요. aniyo, eopseoyo.

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Beginning Korean: A Grammar Guide

Some advice on using the course materials
1. PREVIEW EACH UNIT so that you have a sense of what you will be learning. Do this by (a) reading the very brief introductory notes in English (e.g., "Mr. Park tells you about his weekly schedule") and (b) scrolling down to the bottom of each unit and clicking on the footnote line entitled "What have you learned in this unit?" By taking a few moments to put the material in context, you will enhance your learning experience.
MEMORIZE EACH MONOLOGUE / DIALOGUE (as much as you can manage) before attending your class. This level of commitment—i.e., memorizing—is axiomatic to a language course. What starts off as boring and rote should gradually become more automatic and intuitive. As is the case with so many skills that require the complex union of cognitive organization and associated physical response (e.g., music, sport), a disciplined approach to language learning should foster your ultimate "ownership" of new linguistic behaviors.

2.

3.

TAKE TIME TO COPY THE MONOLOGUES / DIALOGUES IN THEIR KOREAN SCRIPT FORM. Doing so will not only help you to become familiar with their content, but will also give you extra writing practice. JUST SAY NO TO ENGLISH. Note that there are few English-based pronunciation clues to help you; written materials are intentionally very Koreocentric. Avoid the temptation to write such clues in your notes! While it may be tough going at first, try your hardest to learn Korean using Korean. WORK DAILY. Invest high-quality time working with the CD. Don't get into the habit of avoiding or short-changing your time with the material. TEST YOURSELF ON A REGULAR BASIS. Use the CD's built-in self-assessment tools (flashcards, fill-in-the-blank, etc.) to gauge your progress. If you're using a textbook, give yourself vocabulary / spelling tests by covering the left half the page in the vocabulary section and then translating the English words into Korean. Take control of your own learning.

4.

5. 6.

Additional notes about the CD-ROM Materials
The CD materials have been developed such that they can be either used alone or integrated with a number of college-level Korean textbooks. If you think that having an additional "back up" textbook will help you learn the material, then by all means, secure one. Multiple sources of information are great. You should see the CD-ROM materials less as a "textbook" in a traditional sense, but more as an opportunity interact with the language at your own convenience. The CD materials allow you listen to the Korean words and phrases as often as you need to – without the inconvenience of having to rewind a tape recording – and to constantly assess your developing skills. More specific guidelines for using the CD can be found by clicking on the link labeled "instructions," which can be found on the title page of each unit. Finally: There are a few minor errors in the CD-ROM's exercises, particularly in units 1 and 2. These are to be corrected in subsequent editions. Don't let them throw you off-track though. In fact, see if you can find them!

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Writing Unit A A Brief Introduction to the Korean Writing System, Hangeul

The Korean alphabet, hangeul, is among the most significant achievements of Korean history and culture. Among the world's writing systems, hangeul is special in several regards. First, hangeul did not arise through happenstance: it was created in the mid 15th century through the intentional actions of Korea's Great King Sejong, whose goal was to bring the power of written expression to his subjects. Until the creation of hangeul, literacy in Korea was limited to the handful of men who were extended the privilege of attending royal academies where they studied Chinese literature and letters. As Great King Sejong realistically points out in his Hunminjeongeum (Correct Sounds to Teach the People), attempting to use Chinese symbols to represent the speech of Korean people was not appropriate: the two languages are very different from each other.1 Second, hangeul characters are not pictographic in origin and use (as are Chinese characters), but alphabetic: each letter symbol represents a single sound in Korean. The alphabetic characters, however, are not simply arranged side-by-side, but are positioned in syllable-based units: ㅍ = p; ㅏ = a ㄱ = g; ㅜ = u ㅎ = h; ㅣ= i; ㅁ = m ㅅ = s; ㅗ = o; ㄴ = n 파 = pa 구 = gu 힘 = him 손 = son 'scallion' 'nine' or 'district of a city' 'effort, strength' 'hand'

Third, hangeul was constructed by referencing a variety of linguistic and philosophical principles. The letter-shapes represent (to varying degrees) the shape of a speaker's tongue and lips as s/he produces the sounds of Korean. The shape of the letter representing the sound /g/, for example, takes the shape of the tongue as it rises up from the base of the mouth, bends as it makes contact with back portion of the roof of the mouth (near the back teeth) and points forward toward the teeth (without touching them): ㄱ. The shape of the letter representing /n/, on the other hand, roughly corresponds to the shape of the tongue as it lies flat along the bottom of the mouth but then points upward toward the back of the front teeth: ㄴ.
1 Although modern Korean contains many words that were borrowed from Chinese, Korean and Chinese belong to different language families. In terms of their linguistic structures, they are extremely dissimilar.

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Beginning Korean: A Grammar Guide

Finally, hangeul is uniquely associated with the language, literature, and people of the Korean peninsula. No other community uses the hangeul system for graphically representing the sounds of their language. Given the cleverness and economy in which hangeul represents the sounds of the Korean language, it has proven an excellent tool for promoting literacy among the Korean people. Indeed, Korea boasts one of the world's highest literacy rates. Learning to read and write hangeul is relatively easy. That said, Korean writing is not completely "phonetic" in nature. While the writing system is straightforward, the language's rather complex system of phonological rules (processes that predictably shift the pronunciation of a sound in a particular situation) means that students of Korean need to be careful when it comes to spelling. For example, the sound /n/ is regularly pronounced like an [n] if it is followed by a vowel (or nothing) but is pronounced like an [l] if the following sound is also an /l/: 신 shin + 라 la shilla 천 cheon + 리 li cheolli

In another example, the words for 'the moon' and 'bridge' are both pronounced "dari"; they are, however, spelled slightly differently: 다리 달이 d-a r-i d-a-r i dari dari 'bridge' 'the moon'

At this point in your relationship with Korean, understanding the intricacies of these processes is not critical. Rather, you need to be mindful of the fact that while the relationship between sounds and lettershapes are very close, they are not absolute. In Korean—as in English— spelling matters, so please be careful.

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Writing Unit B Writing Simple Vowels in Hangeul

There are eight graphic symbols in corresponding to the simple vowels of Korean. Table 1 arrays these vowels in terms of their articulatory configuration. Each cell in the table includes the Korean spelling, its corresponding Romanization, and an approximate pronunciation as based on an English word. Table 1: The Eight Simple Vowels of Korean tongue pushed forward



eu

tongue pulled back

tongue high in the mouth

이 i “beet”

우 u “boot”

↕ tongue low in the mouth

에 e “bait”

어 eo “bought”or “but”

오 o “boat”

애 ae “bet”

아 a “ah”

Notes: 1. The English words accompanying each vowel are rough approximations of the corresponding Korean sounds. It is important to note that Korean vowels lack the “offglide” often heard in the pronunciation of American English vowels. It’s important to listen to a native speaker produce each sound. Imitate what you hear; don’t be satisfied to produce what’s comfortable to you. 2. There is no sound in English that corresponds to Korean 으. The trick it so position your mouth for the vowel 우 ([u]) and then un-round your lips. Smile! 3. In the speech of many Korean speakers, especially those living in and around Seoul, there is no clear distinction between the vowels 에 and 애; the sound often heard is that much like the vowel in English “bet.”

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Beginning Korean: A Grammar Guide

In writing all Korean symbols, the following general principles apply: 1. The order of strokes typically proceeds from the top left corner of an imaginary box, with higher strokes coming before lower strokes and left-hand strokes coming before right-hand strokes. 2. When drawing horizontal strokes, move your pen from left to right. 3. When drawing vertical strokes, move your pen from top to bottom. Practice writing the symbols for the simple vowels. As you do, say each vowel out loud. Here’s how to decipher each of the script boxes:
Official Romanization (from the Korean Ministry of Culture and Tourism, 2000) Phonetic Symbol (from the International Phonetic Alphabet) Representation in Hangeul using two different fonts.
Begin by tracing the characters over the gray symbols then…

a 아

[a] 아

아 아

아 아











… 아 use the blank boxes to write on your own. 아 아 아 아

The symbol “ㅇ” represents silence; it is required when no consonant sound precedes the vowel. It is written using a single counterclockwise stroke.

a 아 eo 어

[a] 아 [ç/´] 어

아 아 어 어

아 아 어 어

아 아 어 어

아 아 어 어

아 아 어 어

아 아 어 어

아 아 어 어

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ae 애 e 에 o 오 u 우 eu 으 i 이

[e/E] 애 [e] 에 [o] 오 [u] 우 [¨] 으 [i] 이

애 애 에 에 오 오 우 우 으 으 이 이

애 애 에 에 오 오 우 우 으 으 이 이

애 애 에 에 오 오 우 우 으 으 이 이

애 애 에 에 오 오 우 우 으 으 이 이

애 애 에 에 오 오 우 우 으 으 이 이

애 애 에 에 오 오 우 우 으 으 이 이

애 애 에 에 오 오 우 우 으 으 이 이

Practice reading and writing the following words, each of which is made up of only simple vowels. (Note: You don’t need to worry about what each word means; the goal is to improve your familiarity with hangeul.) 1. 오이

2. 6.

3. 아우 7. 이에

4. 애 8. 우어

5. 어이

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Beginning Korean: A Grammar Guide

Writing Unit C Writing Diphthongs (Complex Vowels) in Hangeul

In addition to the eight simple vowels, Korean includes three sets of diphthongs, combinations of a gliding sound (e.g. y) and a simple vowel. Table 2: The Diphthongs of Korean y-diphthongs: 야 ya w-diphthongs: 와 wa eu-diphthong: 의 ui

얘 yae 왜 wae

여 yeo 워 weo

예 ye 요 yo 웨 we 외 oe

유 yu 위 wi

The attentive reader will notice the following: There are no combinations such as yi, yeu, wu, wo and weu. These are not allowed in Korean. There are two versions of we: 웨 and 외. These come from two different historical sources. In modern Korean, however, they are generally pronounced identically (along with 왜). To write the diphthongs, follow the general principles of top-to-bottom, left-to-right. Practice writing the symbols for the diphthong. As you do, say each aloud. (In the diagrams below, stroke order is numbered; begin each stroke in the location of its corresponding number.)

ya 야 yeo 여 yae 얘

[ja] 야 [jç/j´] 여 [je/jE] 얘

아 야 야 야 야 야 야 야 야 아 아 아 아 아 어 여 여 여 여 여 여 여 여 어 어 어 어 어 애 얘 얘 야 얘 얘 얘 얘 얘 애 애 애 애 애

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ye 예 yo 요 yu 유 wa 와

[je] 예 [yo] 요 [yu] 유 [wa] 와

에 예 예 예 예 예 예
2

1

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예 예 에 에 에 에 에 오 요 요 요 요 요 요
3 1 2

요 요 오 오 오 오 오 우 유 유 유 유 유 유
1 2 3

유 유 우 우 우 우 우 으 와 와 와 와 와 와
1 2 4 3

와 와 으 으 으 으 으
4

weo [wç/w´]] 워


이 워 워 워 워 워 워
1 2 3

워 워 이 이 이 이 이 이 왜 왜 왜 왜 왜 왜
1 2
4

wae [we/wE] 왜 we 웨 oe 외
왜 [we] 웨 [we] 외

3 5

왜 왜 이 이 이 이 이 이 웨 웨 웨 웨 웨 웨
1 2 3 45

웨 웨 이 이 이 이 이
3

이 외 외 외 외 외 외
2
1

외 외 이 이 이 이 이 revised 9/18/2004 7

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Beginning Korean: A Grammar Guide

wi 위 ui 의

[wi] 위 [¨9i] 의

3

이 위 위 위 위 위 위
1 2

위 위 이 이 이 이 이
2

이 의 의 의 의 의 의
1

의 의 이 이 이 이 이

Practice reading and writing the following words, each of which is made up of simple vowels and diphthongs. (Note: You don’t need to worry about what each word means; the goal is to improve your familiarity with hangeul.)

1. 여우 5. 이유 9. 아이

2. 외위 6. 아예 10. 유예

3. 우유 7. 야 11. 이외

4. 8. 예 12.위요

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Writing Unit D Writing Simple Consonants in Hangeul

There are fourteen simple consonants in Korean. Each of these consonant sounds can be described along two dimensions: 1. place of articulation: where it is produced in the mouth 2. manner of articulation: how the air escapes from the mouth Table 3: The Simple Consonants of Korean
LABIAL closed lips PLAIN STOP* ALVEOLAR tongue behind teeth PALATAL blade & body of tongue up VELAR body (back) of tongue up GLOTTAL air through throat

ㅂ b/p ㄷ d/t ㅈ j / ch

ㄱ g/k ASPRIATED STOP (strong puff of air) FRICATIVE (hissing/airy sound) NASAL (air through the nose) FLAP / LIQUID*

ㅍ p ㅌ t ㅊ ch ㅋ k ㅅ s ㅎ h ㅁ m ㄴ n ㅇ^ ng ㄹ r/l *According to the Ministry of Culture and Tourism's 2000 Romanization scheme, when these Korean letters appear immediately before a vowel, they are Romanized with the character to the left. Otherwise, use the character to the right. ^At the beginning of a syllable, ㅇ represents silence. At the end of a syllable, ㅇ represents the velar nasal sound (as found at the end of English sing and long).

A note about the plain stops: When the plain stops appear at the beginning of a word, they are pronounced like English p, t, ch, k – but without the "puff of air" that typically accompanies these sounds in English. Between vowels, the lax stops are voiced (i.e., the vocal folds in the voice box vibrate): b, d, j, g. At the end of a word, or when followed by another consonant, they are voiceless and unreleased. The location of each consonant in the syllable depends on the shape of the vowel. When main stroke of the vowel is vertical (as in 이, 아, 와, 위 …), the preceding consonant sits to the left: 마, 지, 더, 과, 쥐. When the main stroke of the vowel is horizontal (as in 오, 우, 으, 요, 유, … ), the preceding consonant sits above: 로, 주, 그, 교, 뮤.

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Beginning Korean: A Grammar Guide

To write the consonants, follow the general principles of top-to-bottom, left-to-right. In the practice tables below, you will have the opportunity to write each consonant with the vowels /a/ and /o/.

b/p ᆸ d/t ᆮ j/ch ᄌ g/k ᆨ p ᄑ t ᄐ ch ᄎ

[p] ㅂ [t] ㄷ [tÉS] ㅈ [k] ㄱ [pH] ㅍ [tH] ㅌ [tÉSH] ㅊ
1

ㅂ ㅂ
2

바 보 다 도 자 조 가 고 파 포 타 토 차 초

바 보 다 도 자 조 가 고 파 포 타 토 차 초 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이

4

3


2

ㄷ ㅈ ㅈ
2 3

1

1


1

ㄱ ㅍ

3


2 4

1


1 3


2


2


3 4

1

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k ᄏ s ᄉ h ᄒ m ᆷ n ᆫ r/l ᆯ

[kH] ㅋ [s]* ㅅ [h] ㅎ [m] ㅁ [n] ㄴ [r/l]^ ㄹ


1 2

카 코 사 소 하 호 마 모 나 노 라 로

카 코 사 소 하 호 마 모 나 노 라 로 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이

ㅋ ㅅ ㅅ ㅎ
1 2

2


3

1


1


3

2


1

ㄴ ㄹ

1
2


3

*When ㅅ s occurs before either 이 i or 위 wi, it is pronounced like the "sh" sound of English: 십 ship 'ten'; 쉽다 shwipta 'to be easy'. ^When ㄹ occurs before a vowel, it is pronounced as r; otherwise, it pronounced as l: 파리 pari 'housefly' vs. 팔 pal 'arm'. ㄹ never occurs at the beginning of a Korean word, though it can occur at the beginning of borrowed words: 로타리 rotari 'rotary'; 라이터 raitǒ '(cigarette) lighter'.

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Beginning Korean: A Grammar Guide

Exercise A. Practice reading the following words, all of which are names of countries. 1. 캐나다 2. 3. 터키 4. 나이지리아 5. 오스트리아 6. 스위스 7. 볼리비아 8. 아루바 9. 큐바 10. 토고 11. 사모아 12. 타히티 13. 버마 14. 노르웨이 __________________________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

Exercise B. Practice reading the following words, all of which have been borrowed from English. (Can you figure out the English equivalent?) Don't be surprised if it seems as if the Korean form sounds a bit strange to your ears; these borrowed words have been adapted to meet the linguistic requirements of Korean. 1. 2. 위스키 3. 커피 4. 카피 5. 6. 스키 7. 라디오 _____________ _____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________

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8. 카페 9. 10. 기타 11. 스포츠 12. 뉴스 13.

____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________

Exercise C. Practice reading the following Korean words. 1. 포도 2. 바보 3. 시계 4. 가자 5. 게 6. 머리 7. 미래 8. 귀걸이 9. 돼지 10. 하나 11. 요리 12. 네 grape idiot, fool watch, clock let's go! crab head, hair future earring pig one cooking (n.) yes 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 치마 바다 하다 고추 개 나무 나비 쇠고기 되다 오리 우리 아니오 skirt sea to make/do chili pepper dog tree butterfly beef to become duck we no

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Beginning Korean: A Grammar Guide

Writing Unit E Writing Doubled Consonants in Hangeul

There are five doubled (tense) consonants in Korean: Table 4: The Double (Tense) Consonants of Korean
LABIAL closed lips TENSE STOP* ALVEOLAR tongue behind teeth PALATAL blade & body of tongue up VELAR body (back) of tongue up GLOTTAL air through the throat

ㅃ pp ㄸ tt ㅉ jj ㄲ kk TENSE FRICATIVE (hissing/airy sound)

ㅆ ss ㅎ h The Korean doubled consonants are arguably unique to the world's languages. They are produced by maintaining the contact of the speech organs for a somewhat longer period of time than normal and tensing the vocal folds. There is no aspiration (puff of air) associated with these sounds. The difference among the plain, aspirated, and doubled (tense) consonants is very important in Korean. Compare: plain 달 month 불 fire vs. vs. aspirated 탈 mask 풀 grass vs. vs. doubled (tense) 딸 daughter 뿔 horn

pp ㅃ tt ㄸ

[p'] ㅃ [t'] ㄸ

ㅃ ㅃ ㄸ ㄸ

빠 뽀 따 또

빠 뽀 따 또 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이

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jj ᄍ kk ᆩ ss ᄊ

[tÉS'] ㅉ [k'] ㄲ [s'] ㅆ

ㅉ ㅉ ㄲ ㄲ ㅆ ㅆ

짜 쪼 까 꼬 싸 쏘

짜 쪼 까 꼬 싸 쏘 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이 이

Exercise A. Practice reading the following Korean words. 1. 쓰다 2. 코끼리 3. 오빠 4. 비싸다 5. 토끼 to use; to write elephant older brother* to be expensive rabbit 6. 7. 8. 9. 바빠요 허리띠 짜다 어쩌다 s/he's busy belt to be salty by accident

10. 기쁘다

to be happy

*older brother of a female

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Beginning Korean: A Grammar Guide

Writing Unit F Writing Syllable-Final Consonants in Hangeul

Syllables in Korean may conclude with one or two consonants. Not all combinations of consonants is allowed in this position; it is perhaps simplest to learn the possible combinations as you are exposed to words that include them. Here are some common Korean words that include a single consonant in final position. Practice writing each.

밥 말 국 삼 산 강 옷 빛

bap mal guk sam san kang os pich

'cooked rice' 'language'; 'horse' 'soup'; 'nation' 'three' 'mountain' 'river' 'clothes'; 'dress' 'light'; 'color'

밥 밥 밥 밥 밥 말 말 말 말 말 국 국 국 국 국 삼 삼 삼 삼 삼 산 산 산 산 산 강 강 강 강 강 옷 옷 옷 옷 옷 빛 빛 빛 빛 빛

When any alveolar stop or fricative sound occurs at either (a) the end of a word or (b) at the end of syllable followed by another consonant, it is pronounced as a t: 옷 is Romanized as 'os' but is pronounced 'ot'. 빛 is Romanized as 'pich' but is pronounced 'pit'. Here are some common Korean words that include two consonants in final position. Practice writing them.

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닭 흙 값 읽있없앉닮짧-

talk heulk gaps ilkisseopsanchtalmjjalp-

'chicken' 'soil' 'price' 'read'
(verb root)

닭 밥 밥 밥 밥 흙 말 말 말 말 값 국 국 국 국 읽- 국 국 국 국 있- 삼 삼 삼 삼 없- 산 산 산 산 앉- 강 강 강 강 닮- 옷 옷 옷 옷 짧- 빛 빛 빛 빛

'exist'
(verb root)

'not exist'
(verb root)

'sit'
(verb root)

'resemble'
(verb root)

'be short'
(verb root)

Exercise A. Practice reading the following words, all of which are names of countries. 1. 멕시코 2. 스페인 3. 이탈리아 4. 케냐 5. 포르투갈 6. 프랑스 7. 필랜드 8. 아이스랜드 _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

Draft – Do not cite!

revised 9/18/2004

17

Beginning Korean: A Grammar Guide

9. 뉴지랜드 10. 오스트레일리아

_____________ _____________

Exercise B. Practice reading the following words, all of which have been borrowed from English. (Can you figure out the English equivalent?) 1. 볼링 2. 컴퓨터 3. 미팅 4. 빌딩 5. 웬디스 6. 버거킹 7. 쇼핑 8. 텔리비젼 9. 바이올린 10. 슈퍼마켓 11. 넥타이 12. 택시 _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ________________________

Exercise C. Practice reading the following Korean words.

18

Autumn 2004

D.J. Silva

Answers to the Exercises for the Writing Units
Writing Unit B, exercise (p. 5) 1. o-i 2. a-i 3. a-u 4. ae (rhymes with "hey," but without a "y" sound near the end) 6. u-a 7. i-e 8. u-eo

5. eo-i

Writing Unit C, exercise (p. 8) 1. yeo-u 2. oe-wi (where "oe" is pronounced like "way," but without a "y" sound near the end) 3. u-yu 4. ui-i (where "ui" begins with the uniquely Korean high-back vowel) 5. i-yu 6. a-ye 7. ya 8. ye 9. a-i 10. yu-ye 11. i-oe 12. wi-yu Writing Unit D, exercise A (p. 12) 1. Canada 2. Russia 3. Turkey 4. Nigeria 5. Austria 6. Switzerland 7. Bolivia 8. Aruba 9. Cuba 10. Togo 11. Samoa 12. Tahiti 13. Burma 14. Norway Writing Unit D, exercise B (p. 12) 1. tennis 2. whiskey 3. coffee 4. copy 5. record 6. ski 7. radio 8. café 9. piano 10. guitar 11. sports 12. news 13. bus Writing Unit D, exercise C (p. 13) 1. podo 2. pabo 3. shigye 4. gaja 5. ge 6. meori 7. mirae 8. gwigeori 9. dwaeji 10. hana 11. yori 12. ne 13. chima 14. bada 15. hada 16. gochu 17. gae 18. namu 19. nabi 20. soegogi 21. dwaeda 22. ori 23. uri 24. anio Writing Unit E, exercise A (p. 15) 1. sseuda 2. kokkiri 3. oppa 4. bissada 5. tokki 6. bappayo 7. heoritti 8. jjada 9. eojjeoda 10. gippeuda Writing Unit F, exercise A (p. 17) 1. Mexico 2. Spain 3. Italy 4. Kenya 5. Portugal 6. France 7. Finland 8. Iceland 9. New Zealand 10. Australia Writing Unit F, exercise B (p. 18) 1. bowling 2. computer 3. meeting 4. building 5. Wendy's 6. Burger King 7. shopping 8.television 9. violin 10. supermarket 11. necktie 12. taxi Writing Unit F, exercise C (p. 18) 1. hakgyo 2. chaek 3. seonsaeng 4. hanguk 5. isseoyo 6. jeong-i 7. yeonpil 8. mun 9. daehakgyo 10. gyoshil 11. haksaeng 12. miguk 13. gongchaek 14. bolpen 15. bunpil 16. changmun

Draft – Do not cite!

revised 9/18/2004

19…...

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