Premium Essay

History: Development of Anti-Communism

In: Historical Events

Submitted By Purr
Words 603
Pages 3
Australia’s fear for communism was in 2 forms: fear of communism spreading to Australia and fear of its emergence from within Australian society. During the 1950s and 1960s events such as the Korean and Malayan Emergency, the Petrov Affair and the Vietnam War all contributed and spurred on this nation-wide fear. Two theories also developed in this time: the domino theory and the concept of forward defence.
After WW2 people doubted that the subsequent peace and security would not last, it was a period of fear and tension. WW2 had justified Australia’s long-standing fear for its vast Asian neighbours, especially Japan. So when the revolutionary communism dominated China in October 1949, propagandas changed their target, portraying communism as a disease; Australia’s original fear of invasion by its Asian neighbours changed to fear of communism. The phrase ‘reds under the beds’ originated in this period, meaning that there were people that saw communists everywhere. Australia under the Menzies government ardently sought to expose communism within Australia. Menzies tried to pass the Communist Party Dissolution Bill in 1950 and was determined even after its rejection to ban the Party. He pushed for a referendum in September 1951 but that was also unsuccessful. There were many alleged communist plots, but in April 1954 came the most notable one of all: the Petrov Affair.
The Petrov Affair was basically the exposure of the third secretary of the Soviet Embassy in Canberra, Vladimir Petrov, as a communist spy. The stories Menzies had supported of spy rings working in Australia had began to be dismissed as just that – stories. So when the Petrov spy appeared with alleged documents containing evidence of spy rings operating in Australia, it refreshed the fear of communism in the nation. The whole affair achieved a lot of publicity, particularly when Evdokia,…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Communism Potentially Emancipatory

...In order for one to answer whether the idea of communism is potentially emancipatory it is important to first define what the communist idea is as well as what an emancipatory feature of policy is. To start with the latter, emancipatory theory drawn from its name is the notion that people are means within themselves and not ends to the needs of others. They have agency and should be free to propose the world in which they wish to live in. According to Ramsey 2011:183, the emergence of emancipatory theory was in the 1960’s and 1970’s and it emerged as theory that was opposed to the oppression to the extent that they are marginalised. “Dominance is progressively dehumanizing for both the oppressed and the oppressor, though only the resistance of the oppressed will allow for the possible re-humanization of the oppressors” (Ramsey, 2011:183.) Emancipatory theory is meant to target oppression that consolidated within dominant systems of policy in reality that takes away people’s agency and consciousness. This essay deals with communism as an idea, this requires effort in departing from the use of communism as an adjective that describes a form of politics, “An entire century of experiences both epic in scope and appalling was required to understand that certain phrases produced by this short-circuiting between the real and the Idea were misconceived.”(Badiou, 2010:13). At this point Badiou requires us to not look at communism in its historical context and use misconceived......

Words: 2351 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

History of Training and Its Development

...HISTORY OF TRAINING AND ITS DEVELOPMENT It has been a way of life that, the trades of adults have been taught to children to prepare them to face the real world. During the course of time people have changed, become more intricate and along with them, the skills applied and the tools used to do the work have also transformed. In a situation to manage these changes in the production, and substance of operation, job training also evolved In olden times, the kind of work that people did was mainly unskilled or did not require expert knowledge. Older and experienced members of the group would usually pass their knowledge on to the young ones through direct instructions. This would usually take place while the job is going on. This was known as on the job training, it’s economical because there is no need for special tool other than what is normally used for the job. Most learning was done through observation. With the beginning of the Industrial Age, the training of the unskilful underwent a drastic change in which professional education and training developed to replace the out-dated system. The early 20th century witnessed the growth of training and development as a vocation, resulting in the establishment of training centres. Important moments in the 1900’s: • 1906: The National Society of Industrial Education is formed • 1911: Frederick Taylor publishes “The Principles of Scientific Management” • 1913: The first cars roll off the Ford Motor Company assembly......

Words: 1238 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

History and Development of the Digital Computer

...History and Development of the Digital Computer Prior to the advent of digital computing, human clerks who calculated in accordance with effective methods we referred to as “computers.” Human computing has evolved greatly since that time; giving the need for computing and the advancement of technology an entirely new growth opportunity. A digital computer is “a device that processes numerical information; more generally, any device that manipulates symbolic information according to specified computational processes” (Digital Computer). Each computer is programmed with a basic set of instructions that are the identifiers of what capability that system has to perform functions. Computers are devices used to carry out a myriad of logical operations, and most often consist of at least one processing element. A computer most often contains a memory bank for information storage. Though the idea of computing has been around for a long while, it wasn’t until the mid-1900’s that “computers” came alive. The dinosaurs of the mid-1900 were mammoth machines housed in large buildings and warehouses and consumed more energy for one operating system than hundreds of today’s mini machine’s do. Today’s computers are miniscule in size in comparison to that of their ancestors and have the capability of far more computing power. As technology has evolved, the computer has taken the shape of laptops, music players, gaming systems and automobiles; each of these tangible items relies on some sort...

Words: 1713 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Communism

...Communism PHI 105 July 8 2013 Final Project “I find capitalism repugnant. It is filthy, it is gross, it is alienating because it causes war, hypocrisy and competition” (Fidel Castro). Communism has become a demonized and taboo word around the world,especially in Western society where it is taught that capitalism is the only correct way to govern a society. Many people condemn communism, however so fewunderstand the beliefs and concepts behind communism. It is not correct to say that communism has failed, but rather that a true communist society has never been enacted. In order to better understand communism we must first know the definition of communism. Communism is (a: a theory advocating elimination of private property b: a system in which goods are owned in common and are available to all as needed” (Merriam-Webster). Communism is also defined as “a system of government and ideals where all people are considered equal in an attempt to create a fairer society” ("Communism", n.d.). The base of the word communism is commune. A commune is a “group of people living communally sharing in the work, earnings and property” ("Communism", n.d.). In a commune there is no private property, rather the individuals living within the commune share all property and resources. Also in a commune all profits and resources are administered equally to all those who reside......

Words: 1641 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

History and Development of Hinduism

...History and Development of Hinduism * Hinduism is the oldest and perhaps the most complex of religious systems. It is difficult to provide adequate history of Hinduism because it has no specific founder or theology. * The earliest product of Indian literature, the Rig Veda, contains the songs of the Aryan invaders who were beginning to make a home in India. Thus, Hinduism is commonly regarded as the offspring of an Aryan religion, brought into India by invaders from the north and modified by contact with Dravidian civilization. (Elliot, 1921) * The literature of Vedic Aryans is relatively ancient and full and there is no available information about old Dravidians comparable with it. Yet, some argue that it is more correct to describe Indian religion as Dravidian religion modified by the ideas of the Aryan invaders. * This is accentuated by the fact that major deities of Hinduism (Siva, Krishna, Rama, Durga), and some of its core doctrines, are either totally unknown to the Veda or obscurely indicated in it. * The chief characteristics of mature Indian religion are characteristics of an area, not of a race, and they differ from those of other ancient religions in Persia, Greece, Egypt or other Aryan lands. (Mamandram.Org, 2011) * The word “Hindu” is an incorrect term given to a follower of the Vedas. The true name of the religion is “Sanatana Dharma”, meaning “the eternal religion”. * Ancient Arabians gave rise to the term as they were...

Words: 3656 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

History Development of Accounting

...Development in Accounting Theory * General Scientific Period (1800-1955) * Normative Period (1957-1970) * Positive Era (1970s) * Behavioral Research (1980s) Evolution of Double-Entry Book Keeping * Early History of Accounting * 4500-3600 BC -Chaldean Babylonion -Assyrian and Sumerian Egyptian -Chinese( Chao Dynasty) -Greek -Roman * 11th to 13th century -Italian Renaissance * Luca Pacioli’s Contribution * Introduction of double-entry book keeping, Dr and Cr were used for entries to secure double entry. * Three book are used: -memorandum -journal -ledger * Development of double entry * 16th Century: a few changes are made in the book-keeping techniques. * 17th Century: separate inventory accountant for different types of goods. * 18th Century: Three methods of treating fixed assets * 19th Century: depreciating property was accounted for unsold merchandise 4 reasons generally advance to explain the role of double-entry in the economic expansion: * Double-entry contributed to a new attitude toward economic life. * The acquisition was aided and propelled by systematic organisation. * It permits a separation of ownership and promotes the growth of the large joint stock company. * The new rationalism was further and enhance by systematic organization. Capitalism and Accounting * the linked between accounting and capitalism become known as the Sambart thesis or argument that the......

Words: 382 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Anti-Communism and Mccarthyism Paper

...WWII was a major historical event that shaped the United States and struck fear into its citizens. Soon following the end of WWII a new fear of the unknown began to develop within Americans which caused nationwide anxiety and panic. Many believed communism might be the next threat to challenge the United States. The growing sentiments of Senator Joseph McCarthy lead out to protect America’s freedom from communism, although his sweeping lash stripped freedoms from many of his fellow citizens. Strange as it may seem, in this period of American history both communism and McCarthyism threatened America; fear fueled the fire to a Red Scare glow before its flame would dwindle and smolder. In order to better understand these events, a more detailed look into history is needed to explain how this controversy and cultural phenomenon came to be. Understanding the Differences Is there a difference between anti-communism and McCarthyism? Despite the common belief that these two terms have the same meaning, there are indeed fundamental differences. Anti-communism can be understood as a set of beliefs, social values, or political opinions that a communist form of government is unacceptable and wrong. McCarthyism, on the other hand, was suspicious and it unfairly accused American citizens of being a communist. Lead by and named affectionately after Senator Joseph McCarthy, McCarthyism and its accusations violated American civil rights, destroyed reputations, caused employers to......

Words: 734 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Communism

...The Red Scare The Red Scare of WWI The red scare was a national-wide anti-radical terror which was provoked by mounting apprehension, fear and imminence of Bolshevik revolution of the united state. The Red Scare was also involved in the promotion of communism and followed the Bolshevik revolution, as well. Communism is social ownership or economic system that property or resources were collectively owned by classes but not by individuals. When WWI ended, the Bolshevik revolution of Russia and the Red Scare came up due to fear of communist and socialist and took hold of the United State. There were bombings by the anarchist all over and this had put the State in fear. Democracy was not expressed, the innocent were put to jail by putting forward their views. There were no social liberty and everybody was afraid that the Bolshevik revolution could take control. During the First World War, patriotism filled the hearts of people and the state was divided into two major groups. There was a minor group which was unrecognized on governmental affairs. The first group worked in the war industry and the other in the armed forces. During this period, one had to be patriot, communist, slackers or draft dodgers; they were all classified as suspect. Out of this patriotism the Red scare took control in 1920s (Binkley 187). The McCarthyism According to Binkley, McCarthyism also known as the second Red Scare is the act of making accusations of treachery, sedition, or......

Words: 542 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Factors That Led to the Collapse of Communism

...Collapse of Communism and the Demise of the Soviet Union Purnea Gillani Author Note This report was prepared for International Relations Practice, BS (Hons) Major in Political Science and Minor in Management, taught by Professor Sajaad Naseer ABSTRACT The collapse of the soviet empire is often heralded in the West as a triumph of capitalism and democracy, as though this event was a direct result of the policies of the Reagan and Thatcher governments. This analysis has little relation to measurable facts, circumstances and internal political dynamics that were the real historical causes of the deterioration of the Soviet empire. The key to understanding the reasons for the demise of the Soviet Union and communism in Eastern Europe is to be found not in the speeches or policies of Western politicians, but in internal Soviet history. Through our report we have attempted to discern the various complex factors that came together and led to the unraveling of the Soviet Union and the end of communism in Europe. This report contains an analysis of how social, political and economic factors culminated in the sudden and unprecedented collapse of the Soviet Union at the perceived height of its power. ACKNOWLEDGMENT We would like to thank … Contents ABSTRACT 2 ACKNOWLEDGMENT 3 INTRODUCTION 5 LITERATURE REVIEW 8 ROLE OF PUBLIC OPINION IN COMMUNISMS......

Words: 4852 - Pages: 20

Free Essay

History & Development of Policing

... Write 2-3 pages outline the history and development of policing in Jamaica. In partial fulfillments of the requirements of the course CJUS115 Criminal Justice Instructor: Dr. Fay Williams By Sydoney Blackwood I.D # 15130115 Section A Date: 1st October, 2014 In 1671 a letter was written, sent and adhered to. This letter established change for Jamaica; a brighter and emancipated future. “We serve, we protect, we reassure with courtesy, integrity and proper respect for the rights of all,” a mission to uphold in this ‘change’. After Jamaica was captured by the English Colonists in 1655, law enforcement was conveyed. Seemingly during this period, the community recognized the need for an agency to maintain law and order. In 1716, night watchmen were appointed to serve various cities in Jamaica, after which in 1832 the first attempt was made in establishing a permanent police force. The Morant Bay Rebellion called for the strengthening of this force after their services were rendered. An improved force was established, the Jamaica Constabulary Force. This force had major responsibilities and so was a choice for individuals, as it was voluntarily that one may join the force. These responsibilities were and currently are based on the Jamaica panel code. Over a period of time in the Jamaican Constabulary Force, advancements such as ranks, uniforms and proper training were put in place. The first development of the Jamaica Constabulary......

Words: 1000 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

History & Development

...Islamic Banking and Finance: History Development Slide #1 Some Issues History Of IBF Development of IBF -Overview- 2. Islamic Banking and Finance: History and Development History and Development of IBF in Bahrain Full Fledged IB vs. IB windows • Word ‘bank’ comes from the word ‘banco’ - A table or a bench on which Italian money-changers used to display their monies and records and conduct their transactions History of Islamic Banking and Finance • Arabic financial and economic system preIslam – Trading based arrangements were common • Bay’ al-musawamah (bargaining) • Bay’ al-muzayadah (auctioning) • Bay’ al-amanah (trust sale) – Al-murabahah (resale with profit) – Al-tawliyyah (resale at cost) – Al-wadiah (resale at loss or below cost) History of IBAF- (2) – Barter trade was common – Al-sarf (money exchange) • Lack of standardization – for e.g., 10 grams of gold in coin form = 15 grams of gold in bracelet form – Institutionalization of riba – Widespread gharar and maysir – Monopoly, fraud and economic injustice was common History of IBAF- (3) • With the advent of Islam, – Eradication of riba institutions and practices – Eradication of gharar transactions – Institutionalization of fair and equitable markets • No monopoly, fraud • Standardization of money and commodity exchanges – Hadith on the six commodities – Islamization of many business organizations and institutions • Mudarabah, musyarakah, salam, muzara’ah (sharecropping or......

Words: 4259 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

Anti-Communism in the United States

...religion. However, while a movement is working to politicize or publicize an idea or belief, the movement is not necessarily equivalent to, or perhaps even relevant to, the idea that underlies the movement. Much of this is true with the frequently overlooked distinction between McCarthyism and the more general anticommunism. Properly defined, anticommunism is an ideology that holds that communism is morally and politically wrong. Regardless of whether the communist regime is legitimate or not according to the standards of Western democracy, the anti-communist believes that government is fundamentally wrong and should not exist. Because anticommunism is an ideology (that is, is based on an idea), any person regardless of country or place in government, can be an anti-communist by virtue of the fact that an anti-communist is, by definition, nothing more than a person ideologically opposed to the idea of communism. Being opposed does not specify any action on the part of the person, however. In other words, being anti-communist does not mean a person will participate in marches against communism or boo communists in public debate. Simply put, anticommunism is a structure of ideas, not behavior, and does not contain elements of action, behavior, or demonstration. In contrast, McCarthyism was a particular political movement in the United States at a particular period. Joseph McCarthy, the notorious Senator from the state of Wisconsin, ascribed to a particular form of......

Words: 1151 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Communism

...Adlai E Stevenson once said, “Communism is the death of the soul. It is the organization of total conformity - in short, of tyranny - and it is committed to making tyranny universal.” The communism Stevenson is referring to does not match the communism Karl Marx wrote about in his political pamphlet, The Communist Manifesto. In Marx’s pure, communist economy, the community makes decisions. “In today's communist countries, most economic decisions are made by the government. Its leaders make all economic decisions, a system known as a command economy. The decisions are outlined in a plan that is carried out with laws, regulations and directives.” (useconomy) The communist countries in the twentieth century were not Marx’s idea of communism because the government is involved instead of the community. In an ideal world, Communism would be utopia. Everyone would work together for each other’s benefit instead of personal gain. However, the state of communism in the world in the twentieth century was very different from the utopia Marx alluded to as seen in the communist Russian government. One of the major issues with communism is that it can kill any ambition or motivation of the people in the communist country. Because individual efforts only benefit the community as a whole and there is no chance of moving up in class, communist citizens often have no motivation to work hard in their jobs. This is one of the major reasons for the economic downfall of the Soviet Union during......

Words: 857 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

History of Organizational Development

...HISTORY OF ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT In the late 1960s organizational development was implemented in organizations via consultants, but was relatively unknown as a theory of practice and had no common definition among its practitioners. Richard Beckhard, an authority on organizational development and change management, defined organizational development as "an effort, planned, organization-wide, and managed from the top, to increase organization effectiveness and health through planned interventions in the organization's processes, using behavioral-science knowledge" (Beckhard 1969). Throughout the 1970s and 1980s organizational development became a more established field with courses and programs being offered in business, education, and administration curricula. In the 1990s and 2000s organizational development continued to grow and evolve and its influences could be seen in theories and strategies such as total quality management (TQM), team building, job enrichment, and reengineering. RATIONALE AND IMPLEMENTATION Organizational development takes into consideration how the organization and its constituents or employees function together. Does the organization meet the needs of its employees? Do the employees work effectively to make the organization a success? How can the symbiotic relationship between employee satisfaction and organizational success be optimized? Organizational development places emphasis on the human factors and data inherent in the......

Words: 2260 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Anti Communism

...the Unite States and the Soviet Union in what was known as the Cold War. The west was concerned with anti-Communism becoming a part of its domestic politics. It had become an obsession of most conservative politicians to expose what they call Communist subversion and at the same time dealt a blow to the liberal causes. The interest of the Soviet Union was in the control of strategic interest. In addition the Soviet Union was determined to create a secure sphere for itself in Central and Eastern Europe as protection against possible future aggression from the West (Brinkley Ch. 29). These different views were the bases for the Cold War. Not only did the cold war have international consequences but also create a division within the United States. Since Communism was a major concern, the spread of anti-Communism was introduced as a way to protect the fundamental way Americans lived. In addition anti-Communism gave birth to McCarthyism. I will discuss the differences between anticommunism and McCarthyism, the perspective from which the media covered anticommunism and McCarthyism, how the American foreign policy decisions were affected or impacted by anticommunism and finally how Americans’ lives changed because of the Red Scare. To gain a clear understanding of the differences between anticommunism and McCarthyism, a brief definition of Communism must be given. Communism is a distinct socio-political philosophy that is willing to use violent means to attain its......

Words: 995 - Pages: 4