Premium Essay

Dwarfism

In: Other Topics

Submitted By almersheena
Words 810
Pages 4
Dwarfism

"Dwarfism is short stature that results from a genetic or medical condition. Dwarfism is generally defined as an adult height of four feet ten inches or less. The average adult height among people with dwarfism is four feet."

Dwarfism is generally divided into two broad categories: Disproportionate Dwarfism (DD), some body parts are small and other larger, and Proportionate Dwarfism (PD), all parts of the body are smaller than an average person's but are proportionate. Most people with dwarfism have DD which means they have an average sized trunk and very short limbs, but some people have a very short trunk and shortened but larger limbs. The head may also be overly large compared to the body.

A person born with PD may not be diagnosed until early childhood when the body starts to show below the third percentile on pediatric growth charts. PD causes the head, trunk, and limbs to grow slowly and not completely develop into an average size adult.

"Most dwarfism related conditions are genetic disorders but the causes of some disorders are unknown. Most occurrences of dwarfism result from a random genetic mutation in the father's sperm or the mother's egg rather than being in either parent's genetic makeup."

When a person with DD has an average size trunk shorter upper arms and legs, short arms and legs with noticeably shorter upper arms and legs, limited mobility at the elbows, extra-large head with large forehead and flattened nose bridge, bowed legs, lordosis, and an adult height on average of four feet tall, they usually have the disorder achondroplasia.

A person with signs of a very short trunk, neck, arms and legs, average hands and feet, flattened cheekbones, coxa vara, clubfoot, kyphosis, lordosis, eye and auditory disorders and an average adult size of three feet to just over four feet may suffer from SEDC or spondyloepiphyseal…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Dwarfism

...There are many differences between an average height person and a little person. Physical health, socializing and family all play key roles in exhibiting variances between an average height person and a little person. People are viewed in many ways in this society, but it is all about how each person perceives one another. Naturally as human beings “one” tends to judge others loosely, based on multiple differences. One common misconception about both groups of people is medical issues. For example, when an average person becomes pregnant they have the choice of giving birth naturally or having a cesarean performed. On the other hand a little person may only have a cesarean, because of their body structure. This is one of many examples. One of the most important factors of little person’s life is, having to be concerned about their health, every day. For a little person the weight can be a major factor. Weight is harder to lose than an average person, as there is no standard weight chart for a little person to follow. The average person can rely on a standard weight chart provided by the FDA (Food & Drug Association). One thing everyone uses as a tool to lose weight is to exercise. An average person is able to go to the gym, and use any machine of choice; as for a little person the choices are limited. For instance treadmills are difficult because they cannot reach the controls like an average person can. Another example of why a little person has to be......

Words: 1318 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Essay

...Genetics H e a l t h f o r l i f e 1. What are Genes? What roles do they play? Genes give the directions for building protein that make our bodies function. They give instructions on how to make or operate all parts of out body. 2. Describe what dominant and regressive genes are. Give some examples. Dominant Gene- A gene which, when present on a chromos ome, passes on a certain physical characteristic, even when the gene is present in only one copy. Recessive Gene- A gene which must be present on both chromosomes in a pair to show outward signs of a certain characteristic. Examples Dominant Gene- Green or Hazel Eyes, large eyes, Dwarfism Recessive Gene-Blue or Grey Eyes, small Eyes, Normal Growth 3. What is heredity? How important is it in influencing who we are? Heredity helps define us from our parents and who we are. Heredity is the passing on of physical or mental characteristics genetically from one generation to another. 4. Steve Rogers and Eric Grothe were outstanding Rugby League players in 1970 and 80’s. each has a son who has gone on to league at the ‘state of origin’ level. Should we be surprised by this? Give your reasons. Their sons have the ‘state of origin’ level because of their father’s genes and have been passed on to them. They have pass on their genes and they were very sporty and great at Rugby league, so their sons will also be great at a young age from the genes pass down. 5. What are the different options of the eye......

Words: 469 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Kids

...Notes Achondroplasia is a bone growth disorder that causes disproportionate dwarfism. Dwarfism is defined as a condition of short stature as an adult. People with achondroplasia are short in stature with a normal sized torso and short limbs. It is the most common type of disproportionate dwarfism. Achondroplasia is a disorder of bone growth. It is the most common form of disproportionate short stature. It occurs in one in every 15,000 to one in 40,000 live births. Achondroplasia is caused by a gene alteration (mutation) in the FGFR3 gene. The FGFR3 gene makes a protein called fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 that is involved in converting cartilage to bone. FGFR3 is the only gene known to be associated with achondroplasia. All people who have only a single copy of the normal FGFR3 gene and a single copy of the FGFR3 gene mutation have achondroplasia. Most people who have achondroplasia have average-size parents. In this situation, the FGFR3 gene mutation occurs in one parent's egg or sperm cell before conception. Other people with achondroplasia inherit the condition from a parent w Is achondroplasia inherited? Most cases of achondroplasia are not inherited. When achondroplasia is inherited, it is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Over 80 percent of individuals who have achondroplasia have parents with normal stature and are born with achondroplasia as a result of a new (de novo) gene alteration (mutation). These parents have a small chance of......

Words: 741 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Seckel

...Seckel syndrome is a rare type of dwarfism that is caused by a congenital defect. Seckel syndrome is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern and has been linked to genetic mutations on chromosomes 3, 18, and 14. How often Seckel syndrome occurs is not exactly known, but more than 100 cases have been reported in the medical literature. Many children diagnosed with Seckel syndrome are born to parents who are consanguineous, or closely related. This often causes prominent physical malformations, including a very short stature and a bird-like appearance. Serious mental retardation and blood disorders are also present in the majority of Seckel syndrome patients. Helmut Paul George Seckel was a prominent German physician who immigrated to the United States during World War II. In 1960, Seckel was the first physician to describe this disorder. It is also sometimes referred to as microcephalic primordial dwarfism, bird-headed dwarfism, and Virchow-Seckel dwarfism. A variant to this type of dwarfism is also known as Harper's syndrome, which was named after Dr. Rita G. Harper. Seckel syndrome is very rare, and only a handful of infants are diagnosed with it. It is believed to be a genetic disorder. Individuals born with this disorder typically have mutated chromosomes.These mutations can cause several physical mutations. An infant with Seckel syndrome will usually be born with a very low birth weight, due to improper growth prior to birth. Most of these infants will usually only...

Words: 480 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Achondroplasia

...Adam Williams 04/10/2013 Achondroplasia Achondroplasia is a form of short-limbed dwarfism. It occurs in 1 in 15,000 to 40,000 new borns. It is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. This means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. Mutations in the FGFR3 gene cause achondroplasia. The FGFR3 gene provides instructions for making a protein that is involved in the development and maintenance of bone and brain tissue. There are two specific mutations in the FGFR3 gene that are responsible for almost every case of achondroplasia. These mutations cause protein to be overly active, which interferes with skeletal development and leads to disturbances in bone growth for people with this disorder. The word achondroplasia literally means “without cartilage formation.” Cartilage makes up most of the skeleton during early development, and for people with achondroplasia, the problem is converting the cartilage to bone especially the longer bones of the arms and legs. All people with achondroplasia have short stature. The average height of an adult male with achondroplasia is 4 feet, 4 inches. And the average height for adult females is 4 feet, 1 inch. The characteristic features of people with achondroplasia include an average sized mid section, short arms and legs, limited range of motion at the elbows, and an enlarged head. Their fingers are usually short as well. They usually have a normal intelligence level, however there...

Words: 292 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Mind Brain and Behavior

...these regions). 10pts. As described by our textbook, Biological Psychology, deprivation has been shown to cause psychosocial dwarfism, a syndrome characterized by the failure to grow in children. It is known that GH enhances cell growth and cortisol blocks cell growth. Stress in general and that is caused by deprivation has been linked to high levels of cortisol, which children with Psychosocial dwarfism often show and also to disturbed sleep patterns which would disrupt the normal production of growth hormone. HIigh circulating levels of glucocorticoids like cortisol in the system have been implied in harming the brain; for example by impairing neurogenesis in the hippocampus which plays a special role in memory formations and spatial understanding as well as a causing a dysfunctional thyroid which could cause a marked reduction in brain size, intellectual disability, and/or mental retardation. Although children who are taken out of these stressful types of environments are able to regain their ability to grow physically, their mental development is usually permanently stunted. 1) Deprivation is the Stress that causes Psychosocial Dwarfism, failure to grow in kids 2) GH enhances and cortisol blocks cell growth 3) stress caused by deprivation is linked to high levels of cortisol 4) stress also linked to sleep disturbances found in psychosocial dwarfism which negatively affects growth hormone 5) gluccocorticoids like cortisol found to harm the brain by impairing......

Words: 907 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Health

...wear and tear on our bones and joints. The cartilage of the bones crack and flake off causing our bones to grind on each other that reflect in pain, swelling and discomfort. Rheumatoid arthritis is a result of an autoimmune disease that is a permanent condition. It causes people to become immobile and cause disfigure of the joints. The endocrine system is made up of small glands throughout the body. The glands produce hormones that are transported through the blood stream to target cells that are designated for certain hormones that control our growth and development, reproduction, energy production and our behavior. Any deficiencies in our hormone growth can cause a serious change to our bodies. It can stunt growth that cause dwarfism, become sterile, and cause low energy level to operate our body. The anterior pituitary gland has primary control over our reproductive system. It produces a hormone that stimulate the male sperm formation. It has become apparent the more we read on different systems and sections of the body we become more familiar and with what we already know and more amazed at things we were unaware of. Learning the different functions of the body and what they consist of gives us a better understanding about diseases and illnesses that we come in contact with. We have learned many different terminologies that was unfamiliar, but we knew the function. Reading researched material will be easier and more clarified in our learning team......

Words: 486 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Growth Hormones

...liver, small intestine, skin, heart, adipose tissue, and placenta. (Tortora 348) Human Growth Hormone (HGH) is a hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that stimulates growth of body tissues, especially skeletal and muscular tissues. (Tortora G-14) The normal functions of HGH stimulates the growth of essentially all tissues of the body, including bone, GH is vital for normal physical growth in children; its levels rise progressively during childhood and peak during the growth spurt that occurs in puberty. (Growth Hormone 2014) This hormone is really important because of its characteristics, without this hormone working properly there would be adverse affects to a persons physical appearance and structure. A lack of HGH would cause dwarfism because the body is not releasing enough HGH, and the opposite would happen if there was a large amount of HGH released in the body that would create really tall people or extra large features. in the body besides hight Tortora, Gerard J. Introduction to the Human Body, 9th Edition. John Wiley & Sons, 11/2011. VitalBook file. Johnstone, C., Hendry, C., Farley, A., & McLafferty, E. (2014). Endocrine system: part 1. Nursing Standard, 28(38), 42-49. Adam. "Endocrine System." Endocrine System. N.p., 2001. Web. 30 Sept. 2014. Growth Hormone (GH). (2014). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/247255/growth-hormone-GH...

Words: 327 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Anthroplpogy

...of Homo erectus or from an earlier migration of a small-bodied and small-brained hominin out of Africa. Scientists found that the LB1 skull shows greater affinities to the fossil Homo sample than to pathological modern humans. Although some superficial similarities were found between LB1 and skulls of modern humans with pathologies, additional features linked LB1 exclusively with fossil Homo. Shows that LB1 is “clearly distinct from healthy modern humans and from those exhibiting hypothyroidism and Laron syndrome. The mandibles evidence suggests mandibles “share a distinctive suite of traits that place them outside both the H.sapiens and H.erectus ranges of variation,” sharing similarities with Australopithecines and early Homo. Island dwarfism is one aspect of the more general "island rule", which posits that when mainland animals colonize islands, small species tend to evolve larger bodies, and large species tend to evolve smaller bodies. The impact it has on the discussion of LB1 is that it made species evolve into smaller bodies causing LB1 to exist. This is because they become smaller when fewer resources are available for them. Yes I believe that Homo Floresiensis is a distinct species because the evidence I found to back it up was she lived 17,000 years ago and that lumpers believe that H.floresiensis was quite possibly a distinct species also because they assert that istn not a H.erectus, but it is a descendant of a hominid that left Africa earlier than H.erectus,......

Words: 622 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Dwarfism

...The British Military The British Military was harsh in everything they did from training to punishments The British Army had strict rules and crucial execution rules. They were hard on their soldiers to prepare them for war and to make them warriors. The British Military would train there soldiers to prepare them for World War One. The Commanding Officer would train brutally train the men. The men had to train in terrible conditions. The soldiers got used to being at the bottom of the society from training. The training was crucial for the men, but it would help them get ready for the war. The British had punishments for the soldiers if they broke one of the rules. If a soldier was drunk they would get fined ten schillings. Rebelling incurred punishments which was different with every army. A soldier’s punishment was three months in detention or more. The British had many punishments for minor rules. If a soldier broke one of the major rules they would get executed. The British would execute their own soldiers if they didn’t use a fire arm correctly. The British executed three hundred twenty one soldiers for military offences and an unknown number of Indian Soldiers. The British were extremely harsh for their execution rules. The British Military was harsh in everything they did. It’s sad that they would treat them if they were slaves. But then it’s good that they do that so they can prepare them for war and to make them strong....

Words: 252 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Turkaa

...fossil evidence such as Acheulean stone tools prompt the majority of scientists to conclude that Homo ergaster and Homo erectus – unlike their more primitive ancestors – became efficient hunters. The social structure would probably have become more complex with a larger brain volume; the Broca's area of the brain allows speech and is noted by a slight slant on the cranium. Turkana Boy's thoracic vertebrae are narrower than in Homo sapiens.[13] This would have allowed him less motor control over the thoracic muscles that are used in modern humans to modify respiration to enable the sequencing upon single exhalations of complex vocalisations.[14] Disease[edit] It was suspected that Turkana Boy suffered from a congenital disorder, either of dwarfism or scoliosis. This was because the rib bones appeared asymmetrical to the spine and the reason was attributed to skeletal dysplasia.[15] However, in 2013, a new study shows that when the rib bones were carefully rearranged, it became symmetrical against the spine, and that unusual structure of the vertebrae was characteristics of the early hominins. However, the fossil definitely showed lumbar disc herniation, an injury implicated with his death.[16] He also had a diseased mandible.[5] The shape of the pelvis identifies that the specimen was a male. His estimated age at death depends upon whether the maturity stage of his teeth or skeleton is used, and whether that maturity is compared to that of modern humans or chimpanzees. A......

Words: 1497 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Dwarfism

...Dwarfism Dwarfism is a medical condition that affects roughly one in every ten thousand children born in America. The Little People of America defines dwarfism as male or female adult to attain a height of four feet ten inches or shorter. The most common type of dwarfism is Achondroplasia. Dwarfs, or little people, still live fairly normal lives. Most dwarfism-related conditions are genetic disorder, but the causes of some are unknown. Most occurrences result from a random genetic mutation in the mother’s egg or the father’s sperm rather than from either parent’s complete genetic makeup. Achondroplasia is the most common type of dwarfism. Infants born with achondroplasia typically have an arched skull to accommodate an enlarged brain. This results in a broad forehead, low nasal bridge, arms and legs are very short, and the trunk of the body appears long in comparison. Achondroplasia does not affect cognitive and mental abilities. Doctors are able to diagnose most cases of achondroplasia even before birth. The ultrasound can show if a baby’s legs and arms are shorter than average and if the baby’s head is larger. Another type of dwarfism is Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia. Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia is an inherited disorder of bone growth that results in dwarfism, skeletal abnormalities, and problems with vision and hearing. People with spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia have short stature from birth, with a very short neck and trunk and shortened limbs. They also will......

Words: 715 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Paper

...Disease. • Analyze a case of Crohn disease and predict the most likely physical manifestations of malabsorption in the small intestine caused by this disease. • Describe the blood morphology of Vitamin B-12 deficiency after identifying the specific pathology that caused it based on a case study. • Identify cobblestone lesions and pseudopolyps from a gross specimen. • Ulcerative Colitis, Crohn’s Week 13 Topic 13 Altered States of Development Down, Turner, Klinefelter, and Achondroplasia chromosomal defects, inheritance, and signs and symptoms. • Diagnose Turner syndrome, Trisomy 21, and Klinefelter disease based on clinical signs and symptoms and/or karyotype. • Diagnose achondroplasia, primordial dwarfism, Acromegaly and dwarfism based on a clinic case study. • Know the risk factors for Down’s syndrome. • Identify a gross specimen of polycystic kidney disease and predict physical symptoms associated with the disease. • Sickle Cell anemia Week 14 Topic 14 Muscle Weakness and Difficulty Walking Broca’s and Wernickes Myasthenia Gravis Specific lab findings, neurotransmitters, and signs/symptoms for ALS and MS patients Compare/contrast Stroke and Bell’s Palsy Week 15 Topic 15 Dermatology, Masses, Abscesses, Tumors Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Discoid Lupus Shingles, herpes, and chicken pox relationships Acne Rosacea, Aplastic anemia, Polycythemia vera signs and symptoms and identify on picture or slide. Syphilis......

Words: 1128 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

College

...hormones are produced by the pituitary gland. Excess secretion is stimulated by anorexia nervosa, stress, hypoglycemia, and exercise. 2) The relationship between Growth Hormones and insulin is that GH stimulates the growth of the long bones through the action of somatomedins, which are insulin growth like growth factor made in the liver. There are no complications involving GH and insulin so far. General Facts l About 3 people in 1 million have pituitary gigantism l 100 cases to date in United States l 2 – 3 times higher mortality rate in comparison to general population l No racial predilection l Males and females affected equally l Not a genetic disorder 3) From the research I did it’s dwarfism that’s more difficult to treat than, for reason being in dwarfism exact diagnosis, was more difficult because of the heterogeneity. Gigantism is abnormally large growth during childhood caused by excess growth hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. Gigantism caused by excess circulating levels of GH Commonly caused by pituitary tumors that secrete a mutant protein that eliminates need for GHRH Tumors block gonadotropin release – responsible for sexual development – may cause amenhorrea in women and impotence in men. 4) The anterior lobe contains six types of secretory cells, all but one of which are specialized to secrete only one of the anterior lobe hormones. All of them secrete their hormone in response to hormones reaching them from the......

Words: 490 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Othering

...who is physically different from most students, such as a child with dwarfism. This student may be teased relentlessly on a daily basis by some of his class mates. My first step would be to speak with the child who is on the receiving end of all the ridicule. I would want to see how he feels about everything that is happening at school and let him know that I am available any time he would like to talk. I want to make sure that the student understands that sometimes when people feel uncomfortable or unfamiliar with a situation they tend to act in an inappropriate way to mask the way they are really feeling. I would ask the student if he felt comfortable with the other students asking him question about dwarfism. I feel the more knowledge children have about things that they don’t understand the better they will deal with the situation. I will then sit with the children who are doing the teasing and explain to them how wrong it is to make fun of someone for being different. I would make sure they understand that being different isn’t a bad thing. The difference in people is what makes each and every one of us unique and who we are. If everyone was the same we would live in a boring world. I would ask the students how they would feel if they were the ones that were being for being different and how it would make them feel. I would make sure when they leave my classroom that all of their questions about dwarfism had been answered and they understand how wrong it is to tease......

Words: 870 - Pages: 4